|Aerial view of the Tel of Jericho. PD|
Jericho (Tel es-Sultan)
Liberty Excavation Reports RequirementsNOTE: If you do your paper on Jericho you cannot write your Biographical paper on Dame Kathleen Kenyan.
You should provide “the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study.” By historical background I'm not talking about retelling the story of Jericho, but rather describe the previous archaeological work that was done at Jericho. Who excavated it and what did they find? You MUST also include the research by The Italian–Palestinian Expedition (1997–2014) at Jericho, being conducted by the Sapienza University of Rome. Make sure you interact with their research LINK and recent articles.
On the Jericho site make sure you deal with more than the controversy surrounding the date of the destruction of Jericho, between Dr. Bryant Wood and Dame Kathleen Kenyan. For the Kenyon/Wood debate you can use the Associates for Biblical Research site (see video of Dr. Bryant Wood explaining the walls of Jericho). It is relevant as Kenyan’s excavation reports were not published until after her death and so scholars did not have the opportunity to examine her research and just took her word for her dates. You can check out Dr. Wood’s bibliography for some good material for your paper on Jericho that is available online. While there is useful information on other sites they often do not mention the debate with Dr. Wood.
Also, be careful as there is an OT Jericho (Tell es–Sultan) and NT Jericho (NT or Herodian Jericho stood on both sides of the Wadi Qelt almost two miles SW of Tell es–Sultan). These are two separate archaeological sites.
I have up–to–date material in my book “God’s Sovereignty Expressed in the Conquest of Jericho,” Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes (2013), 211–216.
Be sure to choose your material wisely. Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material.
- Brule, Annie, Munish Dabas, Amy Guthrie, and Nikhil Kumar, “Jericho,” Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY. LINK
- Bienkowski, Piotr. “Jericho Was Destroyed in the Middle Bronze Age, Not the Late Bronze Age,” Biblical Archaeology Review 16, no. 5 (1990): 45–46, 69. LOOKUP See Wood's careful response. Wood, Bryant G. “Dating Jericho’s Destruction: Bienkowski Is Wrong on All Counts,” Biblical Archaeology Review 16, no. 5 (Sep/Oct 1990): 45, 47–49, 68–69. LOOKUP
- Cobbing, Felicity. “John Garstrang's Excavations at Jericho: A Cautionary Tale.” Bulletin of the Anfelo-Israel Archeological Society 27 (2009): 63-77.
- Davis, Miriam C. Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land. Wallnut Creek, Calf.: Left Coast, 2008. Google Look Inside Biography of Kenyon who dug Jericho.
- Dumbrell, W. J., 1985. “Jericho,” Major Cities of the Biblical World, Ed. R. K. Harrison (Nashille: Nelson), 131–38.
- Garstang, John, and J. B. E. Garstang. The Story of Jericho. New revised edition. London, U.K.: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1948.
- Graves, David E. “God’s Sovereignty Expressed in the Conquest of Jericho,” Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013), 211–16. Look Inside Good up to date information.
- Graves, David E. “Jericho,”
Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the
Reliability of the Bible. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media,
Google Look Inside
- Grisanti Michael A. “Recent Archaeological Discoveries That Lend Credence to the Historicity Of The Scriptures,” Journal of Evangelical Theological Society 56 no. 3 (2013): 475–97. PDF Good up to date information.
- Kaiser, Walter C. History of Israel. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, n.d. 151–154. LINK
- Kelso, James L. “New Testament Jericho,” Biblical Archaeologist 14, no. 2 (1951): 34–43.
- Kenyon, Kathleen M. “Early Jericho,” Antiquity, 26 (1952): 116-22. ProQuest
- Maura Sala, “Khirbet Kerak Ware from Tell es–Sultan/ancient Jericho: a reassessment in the light of the finds of the Italian–Palestinian Expedition (1997–2000),” in J. Cardoba – M. Molist – M. C. Pérez – I. Rubio – S. Martanez (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Madrid 2008, 111–133. LINK
- Nicole, Murray B. “Archaeology and the Fall of Jericho,” Review & Expositor 58, no. 2 (1961): 173-180.
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “Tell Es–Sultan – A Pilot Project for Archaeology in Palestine,” in The Ancient Near East Today 2 no. 3 (March 2014): n.p. WEBSITE
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “Tell es–Sultan/Jericho and the Origins of Urbanization in the Lower Jordan Valley: Results of Recent Archaeological Researches,” in P. Matthiae et al. (eds.), 6 ICAANE. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 5 May – 10 May 2008,“Sapienza,” Universita di Roma, Roma 2010, Vol. 2, 459–481. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo, H. Taha. “Renewed Excavations and Restorations at Tell es–Sultan/Ancient Jericho. Fifth Season – March–April 2009,” in Scienze dell’Antichita 15 (2009): 733–744. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “When the Walls Tumble Down. Jericho: Rise and Collapse of an Early Bronze Age Palestinian City.” In Le Ragioni Del Cambiamento. Reason for Changes. “Nascita,” “declino” E “crollo” Delle Società Tra Fine Del IV E Inizio Del I Millennio a.C., edited by R. Peroni and A. Cardarelli, 173–92. Scienze dell’Antichità 15. Rome: Università degli studi di Roma, 2009. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo, “The Built Tombs on the Spring Hill and The Palace of the Lords of Jericho in the Middle Bronze Age,” in J.D. Schloen (ed.), Exploring the longue durée. Essays in Honor of Lawrence E. Stager, Winona Lake, In. 2009, pp. 361–376. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “Expedition To Palestine and Jordan Results Of The Italian–Palestinian Expedition To Tell Es–Sultan: At The Dawn Of Urbanization In Palestine,” In Tell Es–Sultan/Jericho in the Context of the Jordan Valley: Site Management, Conservation, and Sustainable Development, edited by Lorenzo Nigro and Hamdan Taha, 1–40. Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine and Transjordan 2. Rome: University of Rome, “La Sapienza,” 2006. LINK An excellent survey of the first part of their excavation with over 50 photographs and site maps.
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “Tell es–Sultan in the Early Bronze Age IV (2300–2000 BC). Settlement vs Necropolis – A Stratigraphic Periodization,” in Contributi e Materiali di Archeologia Orientale IX (2003): 121–158. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo. “Results of the Italian-Palestinian Expedition to Tel Es-Sutan,” Academia, February 2005, 1-40.
- Nigro, Lorenzo, Nicolo Marchetti, Jihad Yassin. “Second season of excavations of the Italian – Palestinian expedition at Tell es–Sultan/Jericho, October – November 1998,” in Orient – Express 1 (1999): 17–20. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo, Nicolo Marchetti, Hamdan Taha. “Preliminary report on the second season of excavations of the Italian–Palestinian Expedition at Tell es–Sultan/Jericho, 1998,” in P. Matthiae – A. Enea – L. Peyronel – F. Pinnock (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Roma 2000, 867–881, pls. 1–24. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo, Nicolo Marchetti, Jihad Yassin, and M. Ghayada. “Third Season of Excavations of the Italian – Palestinian Expedition at Tell Es–Sultan/Jericho, October – November 1999,” Orient – Express 4 (2000): 82–84. LINK
- Nigro, Lorenzo, Nicolo Marchetti, Issa Sarie'. “Preliminary report on the first season of excavations of the Italian–Palestinian Expedition at Tell es–Sultan/Jericho, April–May 1997,” in Palestine Exploration Quarterly 130 (1998): 121–144. LINK
- Wood, Bryant G. “Did the Israelites conquer Jericho? A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence,” Biblical Archaeology Review 16 no. 2 (1990): 44–59. Look up in BAR
- Wood, Bryant G. “Dating Jericho’s Destruction: Bienkowski Is Wrong on All Counts,” Biblical Archaeology Review 16, no. 5 (Sep/Oct 1990): 45, 47–49, 68–69. Look up in BAR
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
- Alden, Robert L. “Jericho: Archaeology,” In Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, 4 Vol. edited by Walter A Elwell and Barry J Beitzel, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1997, 2:1119–1120.
- Archer, Gleason Leonard. “Has not the Joshua 6 account of the capture of Jericho by the Israelites been discredited by the modern archaeological investigations at Tell es–Sultan?,” Page 153 in Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1982. PDF
- Bartlett, J. R., 1982. Jericho. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
- Bernard Reich and David H. Goldberg, “Jericho,” Historical Dictionary of Israel. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2008. LINK
- Brisco, T. V., 1990. “Ancient Jericho,” BI 40–49.
- Callaway, J. A., 1966. “Jericho (Old Testament),” BW, 305–9.
- Coughenour, R. A., 1995 “Jericho,” ISBE 2, 2:992–96.
- Dever, W. G., 1984. “Jericho,” MDB, 438–40.
- DeVries, L. F., 2006. “Jericho,” in CBW, 189–96.
- Easton, Matthew G. “Jericho,” Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, Nashville, Tenn.: Nelson, 1897. WEB or BST
- Easton, Matthew G. “Jericho,” The New Easton Bible Dictionary, Edited by David E. Graves. Toronto, Ont.: Electronic Christian Media, 2016, 306-307.
- Elwell, W. A., 1988. “Jericho,” BEB, 1:1118–20.
- Gibson, Shimon, and Nachman Avigad. “Jericho,” Pages 137–39 in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Edited by Fred Skolnik and Michael Berenbaum. New York, N.Y.: MacMillan, 2006. LINK
- ______. “Jericho (Place),” Page 723–37 in Vol. 3. Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 Vols. Edited by David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1996.
- Graybill, J. B., 1987. “Jericho,” NIDB, 509–12.
- Holland, T. A., 1992. “Jericho,” ABD, 3:723–37.
- Holland, T. A., 1997. “Jericho,” OEANE, 3:220–24.
- Jacobs, Paul F. “Jericho,” In Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, edited by David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000.
- Jamieson, H., 1975. “Jericho,” ZPEB, 3:451–55.
- Joines, K., 2003. “Jericho,” HolBD, 759–64.
- Kelso, J. L., 1984. “Jericho,” IDB, 2:835–39.
- Kenyon, K. M., 1993. “Jericho,” NEAEHL, 2:674–81.
- Kenyon, K. M., 1975. “Jericho,” EAEHL, 2550–64.
- Kitchen, K. A., “Jericho,” Pages 563-64 in New Bible Dictionary. Edited by I. Howard Marshall, Alan R. Millard, J. I. Packer, and D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.
- Landes, G. M., 1976. “Jericho,” IDBSup, 472–73.
- Lussier, E. “Jericho,” In The New Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Thomas Carson, 755–757. 2nd ed. Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 2003.
- Negev, Avraham, and Shimon Gibson, eds. “Jericho,” "Jericho, Herodian,” page 256 –260 in Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New rev., and updated. 1 vols. New York, N.Y.: Continuum International, 2001.
- Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. “Jericho (New Testament),” pages 303–305 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
- Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. “Jericho (Old Testament),” pages 305–309 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000. No mention of Bryant Wood's research.
- Smith, William. “Jericho,” Smith's Bible Dictionary. London: John Murray, 1901.
- S., E. B. “Jericho,” In The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, edited by Charles F Pfeiffer, Howard Frederic Vos, and John Rea. Chicago, Ill.: Moody, 2005.
- Schoville, K. N., 1978. “Jericho,” BAF, 391–99.
- Thompson, J. A., 1983. “Jericho,” NIDBA, 258–61.
- Toombs, L. E., 1996. “Jericho,” HBD, 458–61.
- Tucker, Spencer C. “Jericho,” Page 540 in The Encyclopedia of the Arab–Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by Spencer C. Tucker and Priscilla Roberts. Santa Barbara, Calf.: ABC–CLIO, 2008.
Modified Feb. 3, 2018. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.