|Site of Qumran with the Dead Sea in the distance.|
Photo © David E. Graves
Liberty Excavation Reports RequirementsOn your Excavation Report on Qumran remember that this is an excavation report on Qumran NOT the Dead Sea Scrolls. While the Dead Sea scrolls were discovered in caves around the area where Qumran is located, you must provide the archaeological work that was done at Qumran and its structures and report on the various periods of occupation at the site.
Remember, that Randal Price has also worked there for several seasons. You will want to consider the various theories of the use of the site. Was it an Essene monastery, pottery manufacturing site (Magen and Peleg), Roman fortification, or some other use? What connection, if any, is there between John the Baptist, Jesus, and the Qumran community?
Make sure you focus on more than just the Dead Sea Scrolls, as there is much about the site archaeologically that you will need to discuss. As you can see there is a lot of information available so pick your sources carefully and wisely. Choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material.
Remember to provide"the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study. "
- Atkinson, Kenneth, and Jodi Magness. “Josephus's Essenes and the Qumran community.” Journal of Biblical Literature 129, no. 2 (2010): 317–342. ProQuest
- Bar–Adon, P. “The Hasmonean Fortresses and the Status of Khirbet Qumran.” Eretz Israel 15 (1981): 349–52.
- Broshi, Magen and Eshel, Hanan, “Excavations at Qumran, Summer of 2001.” Israel Exploration Journal 53, no. 1 (2003): 61–73. JSTOR
- Claussen, Carsten. “John, Qumran, and the question of sectarianism.” Perspectives in Religious Studies 37, no. 4 (2010): 421–440.
- Crawford, Sidnie White. “Scribe Links Qumran and Masada.” Biblical Archaeology Review 38:06 (Nov/Dec 2012): n.p.. LINK
- Cross Jr., Frank Moore. “The Contribution of the Qumran Discoveries to the Study of the Biblical Text.” Israel Exploration Journal 16 no. 2 (1966): 81–95. JSTOR
- Cross, Frank Moore. “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the People Who Wrote Them,” Biblical Archaeology Review 3:1 (1977): 1, 23-32, 51. LINK
- Cargill, Robert R. “The State of Archaeological Debate at Qumran.” Currents in Biblical Research 10, no. 1 (2011): 1–18.
- Cargill, Robert R. “The Fortress at Qumran: A History of Interpretation.” The Bible and Interpretation, 2009. LINK
- Cook, Edward M. “What Was Qumran? A Ritual Purification Center,” Biblical Archaeology Review 22, no. 06, Nov-Dec 1996: 39, 48-51, 73-75.
- Davies, P. R. “Khirbet Qumran Revisited.” Pp. 126 –42 in Scripture and Other Artifacts: Essays on the Bible and Archaeology in Honor of Philip J. King. Edited by M. D. Coogan, J. C. Exum, and L. E. Stager. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1994.
- Elledge, C. D., and Olivia Yeo. “Rethinking the 'Qumran Community’: Recent Approaches.” ASOR Blog, December 13, 2013. LINK .
- Graves, David E. “Facts from Archaeology: Scribes’ Toolbox.” Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013), 125. Look Inside
- Graves, David E. “Facts from Archaeology: Qumran and the Essenes.” Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013), 48–50. Look Inside
- Hirschfeld, Y. “The Architectural Context of Qumran.” "Pp. 673–83 in The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress Held July 10–15, Edited by L. H. Schiffman, E. Tov, and J. C. Van der Kam. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2000.
- Hirschfeld, Y. Qumran in Context: Reassessing the Archaeological Evidence. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2004.
- Kelso, James L. “The Archaeology of Qumran,” Journal of Biblical Literature 74, No. 3 (September, 1955): 141–146. JSTOR
- Magen, Yitzhak and Yuval Peleg, “Back to Qumran: Ten Years of Excavation and Research, 1993–2004,” Qumran. The Site of the Dead Sea Scroll: Archaeological Interpretations and Debates; Proceedings of a Conference held at Boston University, November 17–19, 2002. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 57. Edited by Galor, Katharina, Jean–baptiste Humbert, and Jorgen Zangenberg. Leiden: Brill Academic, 2006, 55–113.
- Magen, Yitzhak and Yuval Peleg. The Qumran Excavations 1993–2004: Preliminary Report. Judea and Samaria Publications 6. Jerusalem: Civil Administration for Judea and Samaria, 2007.
- Magness, Jodi. The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002. Look Inside
- Magness, Jodi. Review of “Yizhar Hirschfeld, Qumran in Context.” Review of Biblical Literature 8, 2005. LINK
- Magness, Jodi. “What Was Qumran? Not a Country Villa,” Biblical Archaeology Review 22, no. 06, Nov-Dec 1996, 38-47, 72-73.
- Price, Randall and Gutfeld, Oren. “Qumran Plateau Israel Archaeological Digs." World of the Bible Ministries. LINK.
- Price, Randall. “New Discoveries at Qumran.” World of the Bible: News and Views Vol.6 No.3 (Fall 2004), 1–3. LINK
- Politis, Konstantinos D. “The Discovery and Excavation of the Khirbet Qazone Cemetery and Its Significance Relative to Qumran," Qumran. The Site of the Dead Sea Scroll: Archaeological Interpretations and Debates; Proceedings of a Conference held at Boston University, November 17–19, 2002. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 57. Edited by Galor, Katharina, Jean–baptiste Humbert, and Jogen Zangenberg. Leiden: Brill Academic, 2006, 213–19.
- Reed, William, “The Qumran Caves Expedition of March, 1952.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 135 (1954): 8–13. JSTOR
- Taylor, J. E. “Khirbet Qumran in the Nineteenth Century and the Name of the Site.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 134 no. 2 (2002): 144–64.
- Shanks, Hershel. “The Qumran Settlement—Monastery, Villa or Fortress?” Biblical Archaeology Review 19, no. 03 (May-Jun 1993): 62-65. LINK
- Shanks, Hershel. “The Enigma of Qumran: Four Archaeologists Assess the Site,” Biblical Archaeology Review 24, no. 01 (Jan-Feb 1998): 24-37. LINK
- World of the Bible LINK
- Bibliography Center for Online Judaic Studies
- Flint, Peter W., and James C. VanderKam, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment. Vol. 2. Leiden: Brill, 1999. DJVU File
- Golb, Norman. "Who Hid the Dead Sea Scrolls?” The Biblical Archaeologist 48, no. 2 (1985): 68–82. JSTOR
- Golb, Norman. “Khirbet Qumran and the Manuscripts of the Judean Wilderness: Observations on the logic of their Investigation.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 49 (1990): 103–114.
- Graves, David E. “Dead Sea Scrolls.” Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013), 45–50. Look Inside
- Lim, Timothy H., and John J. Collins, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Reprint edition. Oxford Handbooks. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2012. Many good chapters by leading experts well worth looking at this. Available as Lookinside Amazon and Google books.
- Mowry, Lucetta, “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Background for the Gospel of John.” The Biblical Archaeologist 17, no. 4 (1954): 77–97. JSTOR
- Skehan, Patrick W. “The Biblical Scrolls from Qumran and the Text of the Old Testament.” The Biblical Archaeologist 28, No. 3 (Sep., 1965): 87–100. JSTOR
- Shanks, Hershel. The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York, N.Y.: Random House, 2012. Look Inside and Introduction as PDF
- Shanks, Hershel. “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the People Who Wrote Them.” Biblical Archaeology Review 03:01 (March 1977): n.p. LOOKUP
- VanderKam, James C. and Peter W. Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. San Francisco: Harper, 2002.
- Vaux, Roland de. Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, 1959. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1973. PDF
- Wiener, Noah. “The 'Original' Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls: Can the Scrolls help Expose the Original Bible Language within the Mesoretic Text and Septuagint?” Bible History Daily: Biblical Archaeology Society, June 27, 2014. LINK
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
- Broshi, Magen. “Qumran, Khirbet and `Ein Feshkha.” P. 1241 in New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993.
- Davies, P. R. “Qumran, Khirbet and `Ein Feshkha.” Pp. 1253–41 in New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993.
- Freedman, David Noel, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins, eds. “Qumran, Khirbet (M.R. 193127).” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. ed. David Noel Freedman. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992.
- Murphy O’Connor, Jerome and Julia M. O’Brien, “Wadi Murabbaat (M.R. 110185),” The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. ed. David Noel Freedman. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. LINK
- Magness, Jodi. “Qumran.” In The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism, edited by John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow, 1126–31. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2010.
- Mitchell, T. C. “Qumran.” in Vol. 4 of Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1–5. Revised, Full–Color ed. Tenney, Merrill C., and Moisés Silva, eds. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009. LINK
- Negev, Avraham, and Shimon Gibson, eds. “Qumran (Khirbet).” page 420–423 in Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New rev., and updated. 1 vols. New York, N.Y.: Continuum International, 2001.
- Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. “Qumran.” Pages 470–71 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
- Trafton, Joseph L. “Dead Sea Scrolls.” Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell. ed. 2nd ed. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 1996. LINK
Modified July 3, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.