Oct 9, 2019

Tell Nimrin (South Shuna)

Archaeological square on top of Tell Nimrin
Tell Nimrin

(note: tried to post this on wikipedia, but they said I was too close to the subject. So I will leave it to someone who doesn't know anything about the site to post it first and then correct their misinformation :-)

Location

The ruins of Tell Nimrin (Tel esh-Shunah) is located in present-day South Shuna (or Shuneh), Jordan at the base of Wadi Shu‘aib at 31°54'00"N 35°37'30"E (Palestinian Grid reference 2094E/1451N) [1] approximately 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) southwest of Amman, Jordan. It is located on the highway (Route 65) connecting Amman, Salt, Jericho, and Jerusalem that runs along and cuts into the northern slope of the tell. It is approximately sixteen kilometers (10 miles) north of the Dead Sea and sixteen kilometers (10 miles) east of Jericho. It is not to be confused with the Palestinian village in Israel called Nimrin (Kfar Nimra).

History

Tell Nimrin was visited and mentioned in the publications of explorers and early archaeologists such as Félix-Marie Abel [2], William F. Albright [3], Claude Reignier Conder [4], Alexis Mallon [5], and Selah Merrill [6].

Identification

 In 1943 the site was surveyed by Nelson Glueck who proposed that the nearby Wadi Nimrin should be identified with the “Waters of Nimrin” mentioned in Isaiah 15:6; and Jeremiah 48:34 [7]. The site is probably to be identified with Beth-nimrah, mentioned in Numbers 32:36 and Joshua 13:27, referred to as Bethnamaris by Eusebius (On. 44:17). Nimrin is also mentioned in the Mosaic of Rehob also called the Tel Rehov Synagogue inscription [8]. Some have identified the site as Admah one of the cities of the Plain destroyed by God (Genesis 14:2). Collins states:
“The Bronze Age site of Tall Nimrin occupies a discrete territory with several “daughter” towns in close proximity. Thus, Tall Nimrin is a good candidate for Admah.” [9]
Based on a surface survey Glueck reported “not a single one [sherd] from any pre-Roman period.” [10]. However, later Glueck reports Early Bronze I, (no Late Bronze) Iron Age I, II, Roman-Umayyad [11].  Following excavations: Early Bronze IV, Middle Bronze IIC, IA II, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Ayyubid and Mamluk, Period. [12]

Archaeology

Tall Nimrin was excavated under the directorship of James W. Flanagan for four seasons in 1989, 1990, 1993, 1995 [13]. The stratigraphy of the site included:
  • Modern (Stratum VIII) 
  • Mamluk (Stratum VII) 
  • Late Byzantine/Umayyad (Stratum VI) 
  • Roman/Byzantine (Stratum V) 
  • Persian (Stratum IV) 
  • Iron II (Stratum III) Four distinct Iron II phases were well attested 
  • Iron IC (Stratum II) 
  • Middle Bronze (Stratum I)

Late Bronze Gap

In the 1993 Season of excavations, Flanagan, McCreery, and Yassine identified the mysterious phenomenon of no late bronze age strata and call it “a Late Bronze gap.” They continue to speculate that:
“The 500 year gap of occupation from ca. 1500 to 1000 B.C. [LB/IA] must be due to significant sociopolitical and/or environmental phenomena that remain to be explained.” [14]

complete section of the Madaba Map
Madaba Map

Portion of the Madaba map.
Across from Jericho are two unnamed
sites marked site 1 and site 2.
Graves and Stripling identify
site 1 as Tall el-Kafrayn
or Khirbet el-Kafrayn=Abila
site 2 as Tall el-Hammam=Livias
and  [19].

 The Mosaic Madaba Map [15] as an early map of the Holy Land may provide clues for the identification of Tall Nimrin. While most sites portrayed on the Madaba Map are provided names, two sites (Sites One and Two) are missing the Tessera depicting their names. Scholars have long speculated, based on the Tessera vignette of the two cities and their general location on the map, about the identification of these sites. Site one on the Madaba Map is identified by Donner [16] as the archaeological site of Tall Nimrin and as the city of Beth-Nimra [17]. Piccirillo and Alliata,  identify Tall Nimrin as the city of Bethnambris, Bethnamaris; while Schick [18] identified Tall Nimrin as Beth Nimrin. However, Graves and Stripling, along with others, identify Site One as Tall el-Kafrayn or Khirbet el-Kafrayn [not Al-Kafrayn]=Abila as it is closer to Tall el-Hammam the closest site to Site One [19].


References

  • [1] Deirdre A. Dempsey, “An Ostracon from Tell Nimrin,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 289 (February 1993): 55 n.1.
  • [2] F. M. Abel, “Exploration de la vallée du Jourdain.” Revue Biblique 7 (1910): 532–56; “Explorations du sud-est de la vallee du Jourdain.” Revue Biblique 40 (1931): 214–226, 375–400.
  • [3]  William F. Albright, “The Jordan Valley in the Bronze Age”. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 6 (1924–25): 48.
  • [4] Claude Reignier Conder, The Survey of Eastern Palestine I: The 'Adwan Country (London: The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1889), 237–238.
  • [5] Alexis Mallon, “Notes sur quelques sites du Ghôr oriental”. Biblica 10 (1929): 94–99.
  • [6]  Selah Merrill, East of the Jordan: A Record of Travel and Observation in the Countries of Moab, Gilead, and Bashan (London: Darf, 1881), 206–207.
  • [7] Nelson Glueck. Explorations in Eastern Palestine IV. Part 1. 4 vols. AASOR. (New Haven, CT: ASOR, 1945), 25–28. 
  • [8] Avraham Negev and Shimon Gibson, eds., “Nimrin (Tell),” in Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, 3rd ed., 1 vols. (New York: Continuum International, 2001), 369.
  • [9]  Steven Collins, “Sodom and the Cities of the Plain,” in Lexham Bible Dictionary (Logos), ed. John D. Barry (Bellingham, WA: Lexham, 2016), op cit.
  • [10] Glueck, Explorations in Eastern Palestine, 368.
  • [11] Glueck, “Some Ancient Towns,” 12.
  • [12]  Rudolph H. Dornemann, “Preliminary Comments on the Pottery Traditions at Tell Nimrin, Illustrated from the 1989 Season of Excavations,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan34 (1990): 153–81; Rami G. Khouri, Antiquities of the Jordan Rift Valley (Manchester, MI: Solipsist, 1988), 70–72.
  • [13] James W. Flanagan, David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine, “First Preliminary Report of the 1989 Tell Nimrin Project,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 34 (1990): 131–52; James W. Flanagan, David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine, “Preliminary Report of the 1990 Excavation at Tell Nimrin,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 36 (1992): 89–111; James W. Flanagan, David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine, “Tell Nimrin: Preliminary Report on the 1993 Season,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 38 (1994): 205–44; James W. Flanagan, David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine, “Tall Nimrin: Preliminary Report on the 1995 Excavation and Geological Survey,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 40 (1996): 271–92.
  • [14] Flanagan, McCreery, and Yassine, “Tell Nimrin: Preliminary Report, 1993,” 219; Flanagan, McCreery, and Yassine, “Tall Nimrin: Preliminary Report, 1995,” 286.
  • [15] H. Donner, The Mosaic Map of Madaba. An Introductory Guide (Kampen: Kok Pharos (1992), 37–94; Eugenio Alliata and Michele Piccirillo, eds., The Madaba Map Centenary: Travelling Through the Byzantine Umayyad Period. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman 7–9 April 1997, Studium Biblicum Franciscannum Collectio Maior 40 (Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscannum, 1999), 121–24.
  • [16] H. Donner, The Mosaic Map of Madaba. An Introductory Guide (Kampen: Kok Pharos (1992), 39.
  • [17] Eugenio Alliata and Michele Piccirillo, eds., The Madaba Map Centenary: Travelling Through the Byzantine Umayyad Period. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman 7–9 April 1997, Studium Biblicum Franciscannum Collectio Maior 40 (Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscannum, 1999), 54.
  • [18] Robert Schick, “Northern Jordan: What might have been in the Madaba mosaic map.” Pp. 228–29 in Eugenio Alliata and Michele Piccirillo, eds., The Madaba Map Centenary: Travelling Through the Byzantine Umayyad Period. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman 7–9 April 1997. Studium Biblicum Franciscannum Collectio Maior 40 (Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscannum, 1999), 228.
  • [19]  David E. Graves and D. Scott Stripling, “Re-Examination of the Location for the Ancient City of Livias,” Levant 43, no. 2 (2011): 178–200.

Further Reading

  •  Dornemann, Rudolph H. “Preliminary Comments on the Pottery Traditions at Tell Nimrin, Illustrated from the 1989 Season of Excavations.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 34 (1990): 153–81. 
  •  Dornemann, Rudolph H. “Preliminary Thoughts on the Tall Nimrin Krater.” In Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan, 621–28. 5. Amman, Jordan: Department of Antiquities, 1995.
  • Flanagan, James W., David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine. “First Preliminary Report of the 1989 Tell Nimrin Project.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 34 (1990): 131–52. 
  • Flanagan, James W., David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine. “Preliminary Report of the 1990 Excavation at Tell Nimrin.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 36 (1992): 89–111. 
  • Flanagan, James W., David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine. “Tall Nimrin: Preliminary Report on the 1995 Excavation and Geological Survey.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 40 (1996): 271–92. 
  • Flanagan, James W., David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine. “Tall Nimrin: The Byzantine Gold Hoard from the 1993 Season.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 38 (1994): 245–65. 
  • Flanagan, James W., David W. McCreery, and Khair N. Yassine. “Tell Nimrin: Preliminary Report on the 1993 Season.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 38 (1994): 205–44. 
  • Graves, David E., and D. Scott Stripling. “Re-Examination of the Location for the Ancient City of Livias.” Levant 43, no. 2 (2011): 178–200.
  • Glueck, Nelson. ''Explorations in Eastern Palestine IV''. Part 1. 4 vols. AASOR 25–28. New Haven, CT: ASOR, 1945; Khouri, Rami G. ''Antiquities of the Jordan Rift Valley''. Manchester, MI: Solipsist, 1988. 
  • McCreery, David W. “Chronique Archéologique: Jordanie: Fouilles et Prospections: Excavation at Tell Nimrin: 1989-1990: Summary of Results.” Syria 70 (1993): 265–68. 
  • Metcalf, William E., and William J. Fulco. “Coins from the Excavations at Tell Nimrin.” American Journal of Numismatics 7, no. 8 (1995): 145–54. 
  • Piccirillo, Michele. “A Church at Shunah Nimrin.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 26 (1982): 335–42. 
  • Stewart, Robert Laird. The Land of Israel; a Text-Book on the Physical and Historical Geography of the Holy Land Embodying the Results of Recent Research. New York, NY: Revell, 1899. 
  • Yassine, Khair. Tell Nimrin: An Archaeological Exploration. Amman, Jordan: The University of Jordan, 2011.

External links

Oct 4, 2019

No Late Bronze Age Occupation at Tell Bleibel?

Tall Bleibel (Tall Bleibil or Bulaybil) is the small hill in the foreground. It is located on the north side of the road that descends to the Jordan Valley in the Wadi Shuʿaib connects the southern Jordan Valley with the Transjordanian highlands near the modern city of as-Salt and Amman.
It is an archaeological site that has been identified by some archaeologists with Zeboiim north, one of the cities of the Plain in Genesis 10:19; 14:2 (see also Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8). [1]  Zeboiim in Hebrew is plural (..im) and there is another small site called Tall Mustah (not shown), possibly the southern of the two Zeboiim sites, located ca. 500 m from Tall Bleibel on the south side of the road that descends from the highland plateau. Today an army post is located at the site of Tall Mustah and unlikely to be ever excavated.
 

     For Tall Bleibel to be one of the Cities of the Plain there should not be any occupation after it is destroyed for a long period of time. Three other sites that have been identified with the other Cities of the Plain (Tall el-Hammam=Sodom; Tall Kefrein=Gomorrah; Tall Nimrin=Admah) and have a Middle Bronze age (time of Abraham and Lot) destruction with no Late Bronze occupation and then an Iron Age resettlement. (There are several possibilities for Zoar but it was not destroyed so should not have this archaeological footprint). This destruction footprint has been confirmed by excavations at these sites, but until recently Tall Bleibel had only been confirmed by surface surveys by me and others. [2]
 
Author pointing to the Roman aqueduct at Tall Bleibel (2007)

     While Glueck [3] and the 1975/76 Valley Survey team did not identify any MB pottery at Tall Bleibel, they “identified EB I, II and III pottery, as well as a few late Bronze Age and Byzantine sherds.” [4] Others have identified a few EB sherds, along with MB, IA II, Persian, and Hellenistic sherds, but no LB pottery was identified at the site in any of the surface surveys.[5]
Collins reported:

A cursory reading of the sherds at both sites [Bleibel and Mustah] confirmed what I already knew from previous sherding and survey activity. However, there was more surface pottery evidence of a Bronze Age presence at Tall Mustah and Tall Bleibel than pre-excavation analysis had revealed for Tall Nimrin, and Tall Nimrin turned out to contain the ruins of a major MB fortified city. [6]
Roman aqueduct exposed by
night diggers at Tall Bleibel
(2007)
    As early as 2014, I published my book Key Facts for the Location of Sodom Student Edition: Navigating the Maze of Arguments and reported that there was no Late Bronze age architectural occupation at a site called Tall Bleibel (Tall Bleibil or Bulaybil) [7]. In 2018 I stated “This has been confirmed by the author however until Tall Bleibel and Tall el-Musṭāḥ are excavated there will be no official publication to verify the findings.” [8]
 

Well since then, Alexander Ahrens, a Senior Researcher at the Damascus Branch of the German Archaeological Institute’s Orient Department, has led the on-going archaeological survey project and the excavations at Tell Bleibil in collaboration with the Department of Antiquities of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Archaeological Museum of as-Salt (Balqa Governorate). In a recent article by Ahrens in ASOR [9] Ahrens reports that “The site is sometimes identified with Biblical Beth-Nimrah, although proof of this is still lacking. The excavations have revealed an Iron Age occupation of the site, c. 1000−600 BCE, below massive Roman-Byzantine occupational levels, and with older Bronze Age remains present as well” [10]

   While this report does not indicate which period of the Bronze Age (Early or Middle) was found, elsewhere Ahrens reports that “older levels dated to the Early and Late Bronze Ages so far only attested in the pottery assemblage collected at the site during the survey.” [11] In his 2016 dig report to the ADAJ, Ahrens reports that the LBA is based on the discovery of a single pottery rim.

One important find of the 2016 campaign was the discovery of a rim fragment of the distinctive Cypriot White Slip Ware II bowl (WS II; the so-called “milk bowl” from the Late Bronze Age IB–IIB; Fig. 20) at this site, which thus far was believed to be devoid of Late Bronze Age occupation. . . The fragment belongs to the most common and popular form of this distinctive pottery type, i.e. the hemispherical bowl with “wishbone” handle (not preserved), which is characterized by a thick white slip and brownish vertical and horizontal bands of paint, with a net pattern in between. This unexpected find may close the apparent occupational gap in the region. Tall Nimrin/WS-008 (located ca. 1500 m south-west of Tall Blaibil, see below) features Middle Bronze Age IIB/IIC (or MB III) occupation, followed by Iron Age I and II remains with a hiatus in between these two periods, whereas Tall Blaibil was thought to feature Early Bronze Age remains, directly followed by Iron Age remains. [12]
     However, the foreign import of Cypriot pottery, particularly White Painted, White Slip and Base Ring wares, to the Levant and Egypt increased from the end of the Middle Bronze age and into the beginning of the Late Bronze age. [13] So, the presence of Cypriot White Slip Ware II does not automatically indicate the LBA and one piece of pottery does not indicate an occupation of the site in the LBA.


     Now that the site of Bleibel is being excavated future dig reports and publications will provide some of the missing information needed for the potential identification of Bleibel as one of the Cities of the Plain. 


Copyright 2017 David E. Graves


Footnotes

[1] Steven Collins, “Explorations on the Eastern Jordan Disk,” Biblical Research Bulletin 2, no. 18 (2002): 22–23.
[2] David E. Graves, The Location of Sodom: Color Edition. Key Facts for Navigating the Maze of Arguments for the Location of the Cities of the Plain (Toronto: Electronic Christian Media, 2018).
[3] Nelson Glueck, Explorations in Eastern Palestine II, AASOR 15 (New Haven, CT: ASOR, 1935), 371; Nelson Glueck, “Some Ancient Towns in the Plains of Moab,” BASOR 91 (1943): 12.
[4] Rami G. Khouri, Antiquities of the Jordan Rift Valley (Manchester, MI: Solipsist, 1988), 73; Khair Yassine, Moawiyah M. Ibrahim, and James A. Sauer, “The East Jordan Valley Survey 1975 (Part Two),” in The Archaeology of Jordan: Essays and Reports, ed. Khair Yassine (Amman: Department of Archaeology, University of Jordan, 1988),  197.
[5] C. Ji Chang-Ho and Jong-Keun Lee, “The Survey in the Regions of ‘Irāq al-Amīr and Wādī al-Kafrayn,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 49 (2002): 187.
[6]  Collins, “Explorations,” 22–23.
[7]  David E. Graves, Key Facts for the Location of Sodom Student Edition: Navigating the Maze of Arguments (Moncton, NB: Graves, 2014), 114.
[8]  David E. Graves, The Location of Sodom: Color Edition. Key Facts for Navigating the Maze of Arguments for the Location of the Cities of the Plain (Toronto: Electronic Christian Media, 2018), 131.
[9] Alexander Ahrens, “From the Southern Jordan Valley Plains to the Transjordanian Plateau: Current Archaeological Fieldwork in the Wadi Shuʿaib, Jordan,” ASOR: The Ancient Near East Today 7, no. 10 (October 2019).
[10]  ibid.
[11]  Alexander Ahrens, “Wadi Shuʿaib Archaeological Survey Project 2016–2017,” Archaeology in Jordan Newsletter: ACOR, 2018, 38.
[12] Alexander Ahrens, “From the Jordan Valley Lowlands to the Transjordanian Highlands: Preliminary Report of the Wadi Shuʿayb Archaeological Survey Project 2016,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 59 (2016): 640-641.
[13] Laura Ann Campbell Gagné, “Middle Cypriot White Painted Ware: A Study of Pottery Production and Distribution in Middle Bronze Age Cyprus” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 2012), 30; Louise C. Maguire, “The Circulation of Cypriot Pottery in the Middle Bronze Age” (Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1990); Louise C Maguire, Tell El-Dabʻa XXI: The Cypriot Pottery and Its Circulation in the Levant, Untersuchungen Der Zweigstelle Kairo Des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes 33 (Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, OAW, 2009)
 

Aug 24, 2019

Bab edh-Dhra cemetery (Khirbet Qazone), Jordan

Here are a number of images from the Bab edh-Dhra cemetery (Khirbet Qazone or Qayzune) taken during my visits in 2010 and 2014. Although some have considered this to be the OT biblical Sodom the Early Bronze destruction (evident from the pottery and carbon dating of those who excavated the site), the majority of scholars place Abraham and Lot in the Middle Bronze Age ruling out this site. A more promising site is Tall el-Hammam on the north end of the Dead sea that has a massive Middle Bronze Age settlement and destruction.

Map close-up of the area around Bâb Edh-Dhrâʿ and Khirbet Qazone cemetery.

Map of the archaeological sites in
the southern end of the Dead Sea.

Salt beach of the southern end of the Dead Sea (Nov 2013).

Panoramic view of the archaeological site of
Bab edh-Dhra and the Khirbet Qazone cemetery to the left.

Dr. David E. Graves standing in the Khirbet Qazone cemetery.

The Khirbet Qazone cemetery.

Dr. David E. Graves standing on the edge of a
charnal house (grave facility) in the Khirbet Qazone cemetery.

Early Bronze Pottery. Bab edh-Dhra cemetery
from British Museum display

Reconstructed Early Bronze tomb from the shaft tombs
from the Khirbet Qazone cemetery.
(Lowest Point on Earth Museum, Jordan)

Reconstructed Early Bronze cooking pot from the pieces
left behind from the looters of the Bab edh-Dhra cemetery.

May 10, 2019

Articles in Harvest Handbook of Bible Lands

The new Harvest Handbook of Bible Lands will be arriving soon (Feb 2020) and I will have seven (7) breakout panes in this up-to-date work.

Breakout articles include:
  • David’s Palace
  • The Septuagint
  • Alexander the Great
  • The Rosetta Stone
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Roman Roads
  • Burial Practices
I am one of the twenty-six or so contributing scholars, twenty-one of which have direct connections to the Tall el-Hammam excavation project (TeHEP).

As Collins states: "This cutting-edge volume will educate Bible students for decades to come, giving them information that simply isn't available in a user-friendly format in any other book, and much of the information isn't available in other Bible study tools at all."

Holden, Joseph M., and Steven Collins, eds. Harvest Handbook of Bible Lands: A Panoramic Survey of the History, Geography, and Culture of the Scriptures. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2020.
ISBN: 978-0-7369-7542-1. 
I am looking forward to this volume being released.

Dec 25, 2018

When was Jesus Born?

HerodtheGreat2.jpg
Herod the Great
http://www.notablebiographies.com/images/
uewb_05_img0337.jpg
 


     When asked when Jesus was born most people in the west would say December 25th and if you ask people in the east they would answer January 6th, but they would both be wrong.[1] The error in dating was caused by Dionysius Exiguus, a Roman monk-mathematician who made a numerical error in the calculation for the date of the nativity (753rd year from the founding of Rome instead of 749 which is when Herod died).[2] 

Most scholars understand the date of Jesus’ birth to be between 6 and 4 BC.[3] We know that Herod the Great died in the spring of 4 BC[4] and was present during the visit of the Magi at the nativity (Matt 2:1). Josephus tells us that Herod died after a lunar eclipse (Josephus Ant. 17.6.4) and before the springtime Passover of the Jews.[5]
     
It is known that there were four lunar eclipses between 7 and 1 BC. They are on the 23rd of March, 5 BC with 29 day between the eclipse and Passover; on the 15th of September, 5 BC with 7 months between the eclipse and Passover; on the 13th of March 4 BC with 29 days between the eclipse and Passover and on the 10th of January, 1 BC with 12.5 weeks between the eclipse and Passover.[6] Most scholars favor 4 BC[7] placing the birth of Jesus in ca. 6 BC while a few have challenged this date[8] preferring 1 BC for the eclipse that is mentioned by Josephus and placing the birth of Jesus in 3 or 2 BC. This later date has been challenged by Barnes and Johnson who again favor the 4 BC date.[9]
    
 Maier argues for “late 5 BC as the most probable time for the first Christmas.”[10] The early Church Father, Clement of Alexandria (ca. 200 AD), gives a date for the birth of Jesus according to the Egyptian calendar (25 Pachon or May 20th; Strom. 1.21) which according to the Gregorian calendar converts to the 14th of May, 6 BC.


[1] Paul L. Maier, In the Fullness of Time: A Historian Looks at Christmas, Easter, and the Early Church, Rev Updated (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1998), 24.
[2] Ibid., 25.
[3] Dunn, Jesus Remembered, 324; Jack Finegan, E. Jerry Vardaman, and Edwin M. Yamauchi, eds., Chronos, Kairos, Christos (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1989), 97–117; Kenneth E. Bailey, Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels (Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 2008).
[4] Timothy David Barnes, “The Date of Herod’s Death,” JTS 19, no. 1 (1968): 204–219; P. M. Bernegger, “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.,” JTS 34, no. 2 (1983): 526–531.
[5] Mark Kidger, The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomer’s View (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), 46.
[6] Ibid., 48–49; Manfred Kudlek and Erich H. Mickler, Solar and Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East from 3000 B.C. to 0 with Maps (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Butzon & Bercker, 1971).
[7] Harold W. Hoehner, “The Date of the Death of Herod the Great,” in Chronos, Kairos, Christos, ed. Jack Finegan, Jerry Vardaman, and Edwin M. Yamauchi (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1989), 101–32; Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 BC–AD 135), ed. G. Vermes, F. Miller, and M. Black, Rev (Edinburgh, U.K.: T&T Clark, 1979), 1:326–28 n. 165; F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, 2d ed. (New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980), 23.
[8] Ernest L. Martin, “The Nativity and Herod’s Death,” in Chronos, Kairos, Christos, ed. Jack Finegan, Jerry Vardaman, and Edwin M. Yamauchi (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1989), 86; W. E. Filmer, “The Chronology of the Reign of Herod the Great,” JTS 17 (1966): 283–98.
[9] Barnes, “The Date of Herod’s Death,” 204–209; Douglas Johnson, “The Star of Bethlehem Reconsidered: A Refutation of the Mosley/Martin Historical Approach,” Planetarian 10, no. 1 (1981): 14–16.
[10] Paul L. Maier, “The Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus’ Life,” in Chronos, Kairos, Christos, ed. Jack Finegan, Jerry Vardaman, and Edwin M. Yamauchi (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1989), 113.