Feb 8, 2016


Acropolis with theatre and Trajan Temple.
Photo © David E. Graves

Pergamum (Bergama)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Pergamum (Pergamos, Pergamon) is a large site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. Pergamum (modern Bergama) is celebrated as the most famous place of Asia (Pliny Natural History 5.126 [Rackham]). You will want to focus on the many temples and the upper (acropolis) and lower site of Pergamum. Also, make sure to examine what is mentioned in Revelation about "Satan’s Throne . . . where Satan lives (Rev 2:13). Most of the site has been excavated and depending on the year there may or may not be anything being done on the site.  Remember to provide"the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study. Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material.
Here are some articles and Books to get you started:

Online material:

  • Collins, Adela Yarbro. Satan’s Throne. Biblical Archaeology Review 32, no. 3 (2006). LINK
  • Deutsches Archaologisches Institut LINK
  • Franz, Gordon. “ 'Meat Offered to Idols’ in Pergamum and Thyatira. Bible and Spade 14, no. 4 (2001): 105–110. LINK
  • Friesen, Steven J. Satan’s Throne, Imperial Cults and the Social Settings of Revelation." Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27, no. 3 (2005): 351–73. LINK
  • Graves, David E. Pergamum. Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 241–43. Google Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamum. Pages 215–17 in Biblical Archaeology Vol. 2: Famous Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible. Toronto, Can.: Electronic Christian Media, 2015.Amazon
  • Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 86–87. LINK
  • Graves, David E. Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation. In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 1. Bible and Spade 23, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 46–56. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 2. Bible and Spade 23, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 66–74.PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
  • McRay, John. Pages 266-72 in Archaeology and the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1991. AMAZON look inside
  • Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
  • Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895. ARCHIVE
  • Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.
  • Yeomans, Sarah. Pergamon: City of Science ... and Satan? Biblical Archaeology Society July 16, 2013. LINK

Available through Inter–Library Loan:

  • Graves, David E. The Influence of Ancient Near Eastern Vassal Treaties on the Seven Prophetic Messages in Revelation with Special Reference to the Message to Smyrna. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen, 2008.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Blaiklock, E. M. Pergamum. in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009
  • Myers, Allen C. ed. Pergamum. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1996. 
  • Burge, Gary M.  Pergamum, Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000. 
  • Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed Pergamum. pages 438–440 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000. 
  • Ussishkin, David.  Pergamum (Place). Edited by David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins. Pages 666–679 in Vol. 4: The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992.
  • Ramsay, William M.  Pergamum. Edited by James Hastings, Frederick C. Grant, and Harold. H. Rowley. Dictionary of the Bible. New York, N.Y.: Scribner’s Sons, 1963.
  • Schäfer, Jörg. “Pergamon Mysia, Turkey.” Page 688-91 in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, edited by Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, and Marian Holland McAllister. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976. LINK
  • Vailhé, S.  Pergamus, in The Catholic Encyclopedia. 16 vols. Edited by  Condé Bénoist Pallen, Charles George Herbermann, and Edward Aloysius Pace. New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1913. LINK

Modified April 13, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.  

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