|Arch in the Agora of Smyrna.|
Image of Empress Faustina depicted on the Arch
Photo © David E. Graves
Smyrna (Mod. Izmir)
Liberty Excavation Reports RequirementsSmyrna (modern name is Izmir) is an interesting site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. You will want to mention the agora and relevance to the NT. Ramsay, Hemer and Graves have identified several local references in the text of Revelation which you should point out. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material.
Online material: I highly recommend my books and articles. LINK
- Graves, David E. "Smyrna. " Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 238–41. Google Look Inside
- Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 83–86. LINK
- Graves, David E. "Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation. " In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. Smyrna is page 338–39. PDF or LINK
- Graves, David E. "Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 1. " Bible and Spade 23, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 46–56. Smyrna is pages 51–52. PDF
- Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
- Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 1: Archaeological Background. " Bible and Spade 18, no. 4 (2005): 114–23. PDF
- Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 2: Historical Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 1 (2006): 23–31. PDF
- Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 3: Jewish Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 2 (2006): 41–47. PDF
- Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 4: Religious Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 3 (2007): 88–96. PDF
- Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
- Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.
Available through Inter–Library Loan:
- Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895.
- Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
- Blaiklock, E. M. "Smyrna" in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009.
- Potter, D. S. "Smyrna (Place)." In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, 6:73–75.
Modified Feb 8, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.