and Theological Studies of Jerusalem (10 vols.)
- Archer, Gleason Leonard. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1982. PDF Excellent treatment of difficult passages of the Bible from a conservative perspective.
- Berenbaum, Michael, and Fred Skolnik, eds. Encyclopedia Judaica. 22 vols. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: MacMillan, 2006. Jewish Encyclopedia available online through Liberty Library search. Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)
- Blaiklock, Edward M., R.K. Harrison, eds. The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983. Available on campus or at your local library.
- Butler, Trent C., ed. Holman Bible Dictionary. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1991. Not to be confused with the Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), which is expanded and updated, but this original work is packed full (6,672 entries) of good material.
Hubert, and Helmuth Schneider, eds. Brill’s
New Pauly, Antiquity Volumes Online. Translated by
Christine F. Salazar and Francis G. Gentry. 22 vols. Leiden:
Brill, 2006. This is the online version
of Landfester, Manfred, and Francis G. Gentry, eds.
Brill’s Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World New Pauly.
Translated by Christine F. Salazar and Francis G. Gentry. 28
vols. Leiden: Brill, 2007. This is the standard work for
classical studies (Greaco-Roman History) translated from
- Carson, Thomas, ed. The New Catholic Encyclopedia. 15 vols. 2nd ed. Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 2003. Written from a Roman Catholic perspective. Not to be confused with the older outdated online work: Pallen, Condé Bénoist, Charles George Herbermann, and Edward Aloysius Pace, eds. The Catholic Encyclopedia. 19 vols. New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1913. also at New Advent
Angelos, Thomas Corsten, Nikolaos Papazarkadas, and Rolf
Tybout, eds. Supplementum
Epigraphicum Graecum (SEG). 23 vols. Leiden:
Brill, 1923-2016. Greek inscriptions
published in the previous year; new inscriptions have full
Greek text, English translation and critical apparatus.
Available online through Brill for Liberty students.
- Easton, Mathew George. Easton's Illustrated Bible Dictionary. 3rd ed. Nashville, Tenn.: Nelson, 1897. ONLINE. Older research available on many sites, but good for an overview of previous views. See also Easton, Mathew George. The NEW Easton Bible Dictionary. Edited by David E. Graves. Updated and Revised Edition. Toronto, Ont.: Electronic Christian Media, 2016.
- Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. 2nd ed. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 1996. Standard dictionary on biblical theology from an evangelical perspective.
- Freedman, David Noel, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins, eds. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. Often minimalist in its conclusions, but good academic research and good bibliographies. Only available on campus or at your local library.
- Giannakis, Georgios K., ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill, 2014. Available online for Liberty Students.
- Hastings, James, and John A. Selbie, eds. A Dictionary of the Bible. Single Volume. New York, N.Y.: Scribner’s Sons, 1909. Areopage Not to be confused with the 5 volume edition with completely different articles. Hastings, James, and John A. Selbie, eds. A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature and Contents Including the Biblical Theology. 5 vols. New York, N.Y.: Scribner’s Sons, 1911.
- Khan, Geoffrey, Shmuel Bolozky, Steven E. Fassberg, Gary A. Rendsburg, Aaron D. Rubin, Ora R. Schwarzwald, and Tamar Zevi, eds. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Available online for Liberty Students
- Murray, Tim, ed. Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries. 3 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001.Ezproxy
- Negev, Avraham, ed. Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 3rd ed. New York, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996. * Not to be confused with: Stern, Ephraim, Ayelet Levinson-Gilboa, and Joseph Aviram, eds. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vols. New York, N.Y.: MacMillan, 1993. Available online through Liberty Library search or at your local library.
- Orr, James, and Melvin Grove Kyle, eds. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 5 vols. Howard-Severance Co., Chicago, 1915-1939; Grand Rapids, Mich..: Eerdmans, 1989. 10,000 articles published in 1939. Also available at Study Bible Tools, StudyLight and Gospel Hall Bible Search. Not to be confused with the 5 volume edition with completely different articles. Bromiley, Geoffrey W., ed. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Revised. 4 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1995.
Donald W., Andrew C. Skinner, Noel B. Reynolds, and Kristian
Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library. Edited by
Emanuel Tov. Leiden: Brill Academic, 2006. This online work presents a complete Hebrew
transcription and English translation of the Biblical and non-Biblical
texts, together with high-resolution images. Available
online for Liberty Students.
- Pearsall, Deborah M., ed. Encyclopedia of Archaeology. 3 vols. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press, 2008. Ezproxy
- Singer, Isidore, Cyrus Adler, Gotthard Deutsch, Kaufmann Kohler, and Emil G. Hirsch, eds. The Jewish Encyclopedia. 12 vols. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 1906. Research from a Jewish perspective. Not to be confused with this less academic, single volume work. Bridger, David, and Samuel Wolk. The New Jewish Encyclopedia. Springfield, NJ: Behrman, 1962.
- Schaff, Philip. A Dictionary of the Bible: Including Biography, Natural History, Geography, Topography, Archaeology, and Literature. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Sunday-school Union, 1887.
- Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London, U.K.: Murray, 1875. Standard reference work for many years, although outdated it is still a valuable source if handled carefully and with common sense.
- Smith, William. Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by H. B. Hackett. 4 vols. Boston, Mass.: Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1889. Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4.
William, ed. Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 3
vols. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown & Co., 1870. PDF available at Internet Archives.
- Strong, James and John McClintock. The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. Haper and Brothers; NY; 1880. LINK Over 50,000 articles and although dated it was the most up to date Encyclopedia of its day.
- Tenney, Merrill C., and Moisés Silva, eds. Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1-5. Revised, Full-Color ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009. BS440 .Z63 2009. Available on campus or at your local library.
Modified December 4, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media