Apr 12, 2016

Roman Empire Interactive map

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

Here is an interactive map that shows the various provinces with pop ups.
LINK
http://www.heritagedaily.com/2016/04/the-roman-world-interactive-map/110578

Apr 11, 2016

Drawings of Sodom (Tall el-Hammam)

Tall el-Hammam is believed to be Sodom and this is what it would have looked like in the Middle Bronze Age at the time of Abraham and Lot.
This was posted last year, but Leen Ritmeyer, the world leading architectural archaeologist, who works with us at Tall el-Hammam, has some great reproductions of the Middle Bronze Age Gate and city of Tall el-Hammam that is believed to be Sodom. These drawings are based on the measurements and information that we as archaeologists provide him. He then draws up the structures based on the archaeological data.

The TV program was well done even though there were a couple inaccurate facts mentioned by the reporters.

LINK


Feb 16, 2016

Shiloh

Shiloh, Copyright Farrell Jenkins.

Shiloh (Khirbet Seilun)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Shiloh (Khirbet Seilun) is a large site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. The site has not been excavated in many years but it is an important site since it is believed the tabernacle rested here for a number of years. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a broad cross–section of material.

  • Andersen, H. G., 1927. “The Site of Siloh,” PEQ 59: 85–88.
  • Anonymous, Did the Philistines Destroy the Isrealite Sancturary at Shiloh? - The Archaeological Evidence,” Biblical Archaeology Review 1 no. 2 (1975):, 3-5. LINK
  • Clifford, R. J. 1981. In “Zion and David a New Beginning: An Interpretation of Psalm 78.” Pp. 121–41 in Traditions in Transformation: Turning-Points in Biblical Faith, ed. B. Halpern and J. D. Levenson. Winona Lake.
  • Cross, F. M. 1981. “The Priestly Tabernacle in the Light of Recent Research.” Pp. 169–80 in Temples and High Places in Biblical Times, ed. A. Biran. Jerusalem.
  • Finkelstein, Isreal. 1985. “Excavations at Shiloh 1981–1984.” Tel Aviv 12:123–80.
  • Finkelstein, Israel. 1986. “Shiloh Yields Some, But Not All, of Its Secrets: Location of Tabernacle Still Uncertain.” Biblical Archaeology Review 12 no. 1: 22–41. LINK
  • Halpern, B. 1976. “Levitic Participation in the Reform Cult of Jeroboam I.” Journal of Biblical Literature 95 no. 1:31–42. LINK
  • Haran, M. 1985. Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel. Winona Lake.
  • Kjaer, Hans. 1927. “The Danish Excavation of Shiloh.” PEQ 59 no. 4: 202–13; 
  • Kjaer, Hans. 1931. “Shiloh a Summary Report of the Second Danish Expedition, 1929.” PEQ  63 no. 2: 71–88; 
  • Kjaer, Hans. 1930. “The Excavation of Shilo.” JPOS 10: 87–174; 
  • Lindblom J. 1953, in Congress Volume: Copenhagen, 78–87;
  • Richardson, A. T. 1927. “The Site of Shiloh.” PEQ 59 no. 2: 85–88; 
  •  Schley, Donald G.. Shiloh. London, GB: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. LINK

    Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

    The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Kempinski,. A., “Shiloh,” pages 1364–70 in vol. 4 of Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vols. Avi–Yonah, Michael, and Ephraim Stern, eds. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1978. 
  • Andersen, H. G., “Shiloh,” pages 480–83 in vol. 5 of Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1–5. Revised, Full–Color ed. Tenney, Merrill C., and Moisés Silva, eds. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009.
  • Halpern, Baurch, “Shiloh (Place),” pages 1213–15 in Vol. 5 of  The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. Freedman, David Noel, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins, eds. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. You will find a lot of good factual material on Shiloh. Some of the conclusions are from a minimalist perspective but the facts are good.
  • Negev, Avraham, and Shimon Gibson, eds. Negev, and Gibson, eds. 2001. “Shiloh,” page 463 in Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New rev., and updated. 1 vols. New York, N.Y.: Continuum International, 2001.
  • Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. Shiloh,” pages 52223 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
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Modified Feb 16, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.  

Navagation Guide

Here is the image of the area where the handy index is available to students for naviagting this website.

red highlighted area indicates the navigation index guide.

Feb 8, 2016

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Online Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Several Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are available online however, be careful with older editons, as this reflects outdated research. It is NOT permissible to use Wikipedia as some of the information is unreliable and can be misleading. Here is a link to online resources that are recommended and made available through my BLOG.

Also, the Google Books and Amazon.coms Look Inside feature, can be a big help, if you watch carefully the quality of the books (from a publisher with University in the name i.e., Oxford University Press, Harvard, etc.). You may need to set up a Google account to view the pages, but this is free. While only 10% of the book may be viewed due to copyright laws if you manage your search carefully you can find what you need including the page numbers.
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Modified Jan 18, 2016 Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media

Smyrna

Arch in the Agora of Smyrna.
Image of Empress Faustina depicted on the Arch
Photo © David E. Graves

Smyrna (Mod. Izmir)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Smyrna (modern name is Izmir) is an interesting site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. You will want to mention the agora and relevance to the NT. Ramsay, Hemer and Graves have identified several local references in the text of Revelation which you should point out. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material. 

Online material: I highly recommend my books and articles. LINK 

  • Graves, David E. "Smyrna. " Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 238–41. Google Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 83–86. LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation. " In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. Smyrna is page 338–39. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 1. " Bible and Spade 23, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 46–56. Smyrna is pages 51–52. PDF
  • Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 1: Archaeological Background. " Bible and Spade 18, no. 4 (2005): 114–23. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 2: Historical Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 1 (2006): 23–31. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 3: Jewish Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 2 (2006): 41–47. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 4: Religious Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 3 (2007): 88–96. PDF
  • Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
  • Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.

Available through Inter–Library Loan:

  • Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Blaiklock, E. M. "Smyrna" in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009
  • Potter, D. S. "Smyrna (Place)." In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, 6:73–75.
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Modified Feb 8, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.  

Sardis

Sardis Gymnasium viewed from the Jewish Synagogue.
Photo © David E. Graves

Sardis (Mod. Sart)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Sardis (Modern name is Sart) is an interesting and large site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. You will want to mention the synagogue and relevance to the NT. Ramsay, Hemer and Graves have identified several local references in the text of Revelation which you should point out. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material. 

Online material: I highly recommend my books and articles. LINK

  • Graves, David E. Sardis.” Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 245–48. Google Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 89–92. LINK
  • Graves, David E. Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation.” In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Graves, 2013. Sardis is page 345. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 2.” Bible and Spade 23, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 66–74. Sardis is pages 66–69.PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
  • Greenewalt Jr., Crawford H., Donald G. Sullivan, Christopher Ratté and Thomas N. Howe. The Sardis Campaigns of 1981 and 1982.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies. No. 23 (1985): 53–92. JSTOR
  • Greenewalt Jr., Crawford H., Marcus L. Rautman and Recep Meric. The Sardis Campaign of 1983.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies. No. 24 (1986): 1–30. JSTOR
  • Greenewalt Jr., Crawford H., Nicholas Cahill, Philip Stinson, and Fikret Yegül. The City of Sardis: Approaches in Graphic Recording, 2003.
  • Mitten, David Gordon. A New Look at Ancient Sardis.” Biblical Archaeologist 29, no. 3 (1966): 38–68. JSTOR
  • Ramage, A., Craddock, P. (Eds.), Examination of the Sardis gold and the replication experiments, Monograph Volume 11, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, in association with the British Museum Press, Cambridge, 2000.
  • Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
  • Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994, pages 259-85.
  • Royalty, Robert M. Etched or Sketched? Inscriptions and Erasures in the Messages to Sardis and Philadelphia (Rev. 3.1–13).” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27, no. 4 (June 2005): 447–463. LINK

Available through Inter–Library Loan:

  • Bonz, Marianne Palmer. The Jewish Community of Ancient Sardis: A Reassessment of Its Rise to Prominence.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 93 (1990): 343–59.
  • Foss, C. 1976. Byzantine and Turkish Sardis. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 4. Cambridge, MA
  • Graves, David E. Sardis.” Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 245–48. Google Look Inside
  • Hanfmann, George M. A. Letters from Sardis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
  • Hanfmann, G. M. A., and Ramage, N. H. Sculpture from Sardis. The Finds through 1975. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. Report 2. Cambridge, MA, 1978.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., Nelson Glueck, and Jane C. Waldbaum. New Excavations at Sardis and Some Problems of Western Anatolian Archaeoogy. High Wycomb: University Microfilms, 1975.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., William E. Mierse, and Clive Foss, eds. Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 1958–1975. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., and Jane C Waldbaum. A Survey of Sardis and the Major Monuments Outside the City Walls. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,, 1975.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Sardis Letter and the Croesus Tradition.” New Testament Studies 19 (1972): 94–97.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.
  • Kraabel, A. T. Impact of the Discovery of the Sardis Synagogue.” In Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 1958–1975, edited by George Maxim Anossov Hanfmann, William E. Mierse, and Clive Foss, 178–90. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Kraabel, A. T.  “Melito the Bishop and the Synagogue at Sardis: Text and Context.” Pp. 77–85 in Studies Presented to George M. A. Hanfmann, ed. D. G. Mitten, J. G. Pedley, and J. A. Scott. Monographs in Art and Archaeology 2. Mainz, 1971.Kraabel, A. T. Hypsistos and the Synagogue at Sardis.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 10 (1969): 81–93.
  • Kroll, John H. “The Greek Inscriptions of the Sardis Synagogue,” Harvard Theological Review 94 (2001): 5– 55.
  • Mitten, David G. et  al., Sardis: Twenty-seven Years of Discovery. University of Chicago, 1987. See table of contents below:
    • Prehistoric Sardis : a summary and forecast.” / David Gordon Mitten 
    • Lydian Sardis.” / Andrew Ramage 
    • Lydia and Sardis in Anatolian context.” / Machteld J. Mellink 
    • The arts at Sardis.” / Nancy H. Ramage 
    • Metalwork and metalworking at Sardis.” / Jane C. Waldbaum 
    • Roman architecture at Sardis.” / Fikret K. Yegül 
    • The synagogue at Sardis : Jews and Christians.” / A. Thomas Kraabel 
    • Sardis in the Byzantine and Turkish eras.” / Jane Ayer Scott
  • Pedley, J. G.  Ancient Literary Sources on Sardis. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. Monograph 2. Cambridge, MA, 1972.
  • Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895.
  •  Seager, A. R. 1972. “The Building History of the Sardis Synagogue.” American Journal of Archaeology 76:425–35.
  • Yamauchi, Edwin M. “Sardis.” pages 68-76 in New Testament Cities in Western Asia Minor: Light from Archaeology on Cities of Paul and the Seven Churches of Revelation. Eugene, Oreg.: Wipf & Stock, 2003.
  • Yegul, F. K. 1986. The Bath-Gymnasium Complex at Sardis. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis. Report 3. Cambridge, MA.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Bonz, Marianne Palmer. “Sardis.” Pages 1194–96 in The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism, edited by John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2010.
  • Blaiklock, E. M. “Sardis.” Pages  328–30 in vol. 5 of The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, edited by Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009
  • Burge, Gary M. “Sardis.” Pages 1168-69 in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible edited by Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000
  • Pedley, John Griffiths. “Sardis (Place).” Pages 982-84 in vol. 5 of The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. Edited by David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992
  • Kraabel A. T.  “Synagogues: Sardis synagogue (Turkey).”  Pages 678 in vol. 13 of New Catholic Encyclopedia. Edited by Thomas Carson. Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 2003. LINK
  • Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. Sardis.”  Pages 497–99 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
  • Vailhé, Siméon. “Sardes.” Page 472 in vol. 13 of The Catholic Encyclopedia. 16 vols. Edited by  Condé Bénoist Pallen, Charles George Herbermann, and Edward Aloysius Pace. New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1913. LINK
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Modified Feb 14, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.