Mar 13, 2014
Mar 12, 2014
Here is the final inscription. Like the oil lamp, the stone to the right stated: "By the name of Allah." The stone to the left translates as "By his prophet Mohammed." This would date to the Umyyad period (638-750 AD) as the building and city of Livias were destroyed in the earthquake of 749 AD (see evidence for the date below) that took out many of the cities in the Jordan Valley including Khirbet Mefjer near Jericho, Pella, Capernaum, Sussita-Hippos, and Bet Shean-Scythopolis.
Tsafrir and Foerster document that in:
Bet Shean much evidence was found of the tremendous earthquake that destroyed the city. One of the best examples is an arcaded commercial street of the Byzantine and early Arab period, which collapsed completely. Underneath the debris of the shops many artifacts were discovered that confirm the dating of the collapse to the mid eighth century, among them pottery, glass and metal vessels, as well as balances, jewellery and coins. Not one of the coins found dates from later than the first half of the eighth century. Most significant is a hoard discovered in one of the shops which included, among other finds, 31 gold dinars. The earliest coin in this hoard is dated A.H. 78 (March 697-March 698 C.E.) and the latest was minted in A.H. 131 (31 August 748-19 August 749). This coin is the latest in date of those found hitherto under the ruins of the earthquake by the excavation. Its discovery supplies a clear terminus post quem for the earthquake no earlier than the end of August 748. Clearly this coin, which has survived in mint condition, had found its way into the hands of the trader a very short time before it was buried by the earthquake of 18 January in the year 749.Tsafrir, Yoram, and Gideon Foerster. “The Dating of the ‘Earthquake of the Sabbatical Year’ of 749 C. E. in Palestine.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 55, no. 2 (1992): 231–235.
The conquest of the Byzantine empire took place at the Battle of Yarmouk between the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate just north of us near the Yarmouk River in August 636. The Muslim presence at Livias was only 113 years but in that time they cut this inscription into the inside wall of the building designating their ownership of the bath complex.
Mar 11, 2014
Jodi Magness states:
"This type [bag-shaped storage jars] dates to the second half of the first century and first half of the second century and is well represented at sites around the Dead Sea and in the Bar Kokhba caves." Jodi Magness, “The Pottery from the 1995 Excavations in Camp F Masada.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 353 (2009): 79.We were able to find enough pieces to complete part of the shoulder and rim. We were unable to make the handle fit and we did have another complete rim of a similar jar. It might belong to the the other jar.
Magness goes on to describe our style of jar:
"A different type of locally produced, bag-shaped storage jar dating to the first century and first half of the second century is represented by a small number of specimens (figs. 4:2-3; 8:6). These jars are made of hard-fired, orange or orange-brown ware, some times with a light brown or light orange slip. They have an everted neck with a thickened, ledge-like rim and a ridge at the base of the neck. These are often referred to as "bell-shaped jars," identified as Type SJ5 at Ein Boqeq (where it is the second most common storage jar type), Group 13 at Machaerus (see Fischer and Tal 2000: 36-37; Loffreda 1996: 47), and Type M-SJ13 at Masada (Bar-Nathan 2006: 62-65)." Jodi Magness, “The Pottery from the 1995 Excavations in Camp F Masada.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 353 (2009): 79.
During a visit to the New Archaeological museum in Amman I spotted this vessel (right) which is a similar style.
Here my wife (Irina) is holding one of the complete jars, a beautiful spouted wine jug. Five other vessels are in the black gouffa's. First there was one, then two, and by the time we were finished we had excavated six whole vessels. A couple were broken but we had most of the parts to mend them.
Roman terracotta wine jug ca.1st-2nd century AD. This is the third of this type found together in the same area.
Byzantine single handled ribbed pitcher.
Two years ago (Feb 2012) we discovered a part of an oil lamp with a Greek inscription from a bit later period (end of the 5th to the 7th or 8th century AD). It reads "Jesus light shines for all."
LINK. Scroll down to the bottom of the page to see the jar. It is the last piece of pottery displayed.
Once we washed up the pieces we found that much of the top of the jar was mendable. It really helps to see the stance of the jar once the pieces are put together.
A few days later I was visiting the new St. Lot Museum at the southern end of the Dead Sea and spotted this same style vessel. It is a similar Byzantine transport amphora jar that dates to the 6th century AD. Such pots were used to store honey, a product of monasteries. Amihai Mazar, an Israeli archaeologist and Professor at the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, also had just lectured for us on his discovery of the 30 unusual ancient Beehives at the ancient city of Rehov. It was interesting to see a reference to honey from the land of Milk and Honey.
Mar 10, 2014
Here is a larger map that may help locate us in Jordan. LINK
I currently have three books published and working on my fourth on Sodom.
The first was the publication of my PhD dissertation by Gorgias Press in 2009 under the title The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. in their Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies series 41. Amazon.com, Gorgias Press and Eisenbrauns.
The second volume came out in 2013 and is self-published under the title of The Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. CreateSpace, 2013 available on CreateSpace eStore, Amazon.com and Barnes and Nobles. Surveys 12 Old Testament themes written for the undergraduate audience from a themes perspective. The themes include history of the English Bible, biblical revelation, inspiration, transmission of the text, creation context, sovereignty of God, sin and the human condition, protoevangelium, covenant, biblical law, Israelite worship, and prophets. ISBN-13: 978-1478122692; ISBN-10: 1478122692.
The third book was self-published through Create Space in Jan of 2014 under the title of The Key Themes of the New Testament is now available at Createspace eStore, Amazon. com and Barnes and Nobles. Themes covered include the kinds of biblical literature, birth and early years of Jesus, the ministry of Jesus, the death of Jesus, the resurrection and ascension of Jesus, and the founding, development, formation and future of the Church. At over 440 pages and over 100 photos, maps and charts this book will complete the Biblical Themes series. ISBN-10: 1490922741; ISBN-13: 978-1490922744.
The fourth volume coming this year will be the Key Facts for the Location of Sodom: Navigating the Maze of Arguments, CreateSpace, 2014. Forthcoming.
Jan 25, 2014
|Northern and Southern location for the Cities of the Plain|
Jan 23, 2014
- My Blog. Your looking at it!! Check out the right column for books and links under these headings.
- Sources on Archaeology: with links to good books for research in alphabetical order. Click on the book or article to download the file. You will need either Acrobat Reader for the PDF or WinDJview for the DJVU files (download the software to read DJVU at LINK).
- Archaeology: with links to museums and websites related to archaeology.
- Research: with links to ancient documents, abbreviations, Journals, and maps.
- My Books.
Key Themes of the Old and New Testament are full of
side bar sections on archaeology.
- Google Books
Search for a book and use the Look
Inside feature. This can be a big help.
Use the table of contents of the book. You will need to set
up a Google account to view the pages but this is free.
Sometimes if the page is not available on
one Amazon it is in Google books so make sure to check both
sites if you don't see what you need. You do need to watch
carefully the quality of the books. (From a reputable
publisher with University in the name i.e., Oxford
University Press, Harvard, etc.). Don't use "Archaeology
for Dummies!!!" it does exist!!
- Internet Archive. This site has the largest collection of scanned (PDF) works in the world. Almost anything that is prior to 1923 is available because of the copyright laws.
- Wikipedia. Don't use it!!! The material is notorious for being unreliable and inaccurate. If you do look at an article like Jericho in the link check out the footnotes and bibliography at the bottom where they will often have links to PDF files you can download or books you can look up in Google books or get at the Library. NEVER place Wikipedia in your bibliography.
Website Bible Tools
- BiblicalWritings.com Many of their works are modern and helpful for research. See a complete list with user instructions on my BLOG
- StudyLight.org Much of the older material is repeated from other sites.
- Rob Bradshaw's biblicalstudies.org
To make high quality theological material
available throughout the world. Digitising and uploading in
co-operation with authors and publishers, rare and
out-of-print theology books and articles. Over 18,000
articles (PDF) are now available for free download here
or via the subject menus on the left hand side of the
- BibleStudyTools.com Almost all their works are older and out of date for research but good for searching the Bible.
- StepTools by Tyndale. Very Powerful online tool. Various Bible Translation and language helps along with older commentaries and dictionaries.
- Christian Information Ministries provides information on Noah's Ark research by Bill Crouse but many other issues.
- Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Like the Epic of Gilgamesh, Code of Hammurabi, Hittite and Sumerian texts.
- Christianity: Gnostic, Medieval and other texts related to Christianity.
- Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library Leon Levy: High resolution images of the actual scrolls.
- Eisenman, Robert H,
and Michael Owen Wise. The
Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered: The First Complete
Translation and Interpretation of 50 Key Documents
Withheld for Over 35 Years. Rockport, Mass.:
- Early Christian Writings: such as the Didiche, and Gnostics.
- Early Jewish
Writings: Includes Pseudepigrapha, Philo of
Alexandria and Josephus.
Electronic Tools and Ancient Near East Archives: Links to many
books that deal with archaeology and the Ancient Near Eastern
are available here. Use the Browse by Author Feature.
- Greco-Roman: Text by Josephus, Strabo, Tacitus, Philo, Pliny etc.
- LacusCurtius: Into the Roman World by Bill Thayer. Text by Strabo, Tacitus, Polybius, Suetonius, etc.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri Online
These books are
suitable for doing research in archaeology and the complete
books are available in either PDF or DJVU format. The DJVU
reader can be found at LINK.
Use the index in the
book or search using the Adobe Edit/Find feature (Ctrl+F).
- Flint, Peter W., and James C. VanderKam, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment. Vol. 2. Leiden: Brill, 1999. DJVU
- Galor, Katharina, Jean-baptiste Humbert, and Jürgen Zangenberg, eds. Qumran. The Site of the Dead Sea Scroll: Archaeological Interpretations and Debates: Proceedings of a Conference Held at Boston University, November 17-19, 2002. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 57. Leiden: Brill, 2006. DJVU
- MacDonald, Burton. East of
the Jordan: Territories and Sites of the Hebrew
Scriptures. Edited by Victor H. Matthews.
ASOR Books 6. Boston, Mass.: American Schools of Oriental
Research, 2000. PDF
See chapter chapter 4 “Sodom, Gomorrah,
Admah, Zeboiim, Bela (=Zoar)—the 'Cities of the Plain'—and
Lasha,” Page 45-62.
- Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the
Traveler and Roman Citizen. London, U.K.:
Hodder & Stoughton, 1887.
- Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches of Asia and Their Place in the Plan of the Apocalypse. London, U.K.: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904.
- Vaux, Roland de. Archaeology
and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Schweich Lectures
of the British Academy, 1959. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University
Most Journal articles
will be available through the Liberty Library online.
- Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology
- BiblicalStudies.org Journals. Over 18,000 theological articles are now available on this site free of charge.
- Biblical Research Bulletin Published by Trinity Southwest University. All of Dr. Steven Collins' Sodom Research.
- Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (1869 - 1878). Many good British archaeologists like Wilson, Warren, Conder, Kitchener, Petrie, Garstang, T. E. Lawrence, and Kenyon, etc. have posted material in this journal. You may also use the Internet Archive to find and download the entire Quarterly Journal to find your material.
- Bible and Spade (BS) Edited by Bryant Wood. It is a non-technical quarterly publication published by the Associates for Biblical Research. It is written from a scholarly and conservative viewpoint, supporting the inerrancy of the Biblical record.
Archaeology Review (BAR) Edited by Hershel
Shanks who is Jewish which is reflected in his selective
articles dealing with the OT and his viewpoint on the NT.
- BAR 01:01 (March 1975)
- BAR 01:02 (June 1975)
- BAR 01:03 (September 1975)
- BAR 01:04 (December 1975)
- BAR 02:01 (March 1976)
- BAR 02:02 (June 1976)
- BAR 02:03 (September 1976)
- BAR 02:04 (December 1976)
- BAR 03:01 (March 1977)
- BAR 03:02 (June 1977)
- BAR 03:03 (September 1977)
- BAR 03:04 (December 1977)
- BAR 04:01 (March 1978)
- BAR 04:02 (June 1978)
- BAR 04:03 (Sep/Oct 1978)
- BAR 04:04 (Nov/Dec 1978)
- BAR 05:01 (Jan/Feb 1979)
- BAR 05:02 (March/April 1979)
- BAR 05:03 (May/June 1979)
- BAR 05:04 (July/Aug 1979)
- BAR 05:05 (Sep/Oct 1979)
- BAR 05:06 (Nov/Dec 1979)
- BAR 06:01 (Jan/Feb 1980)
- BAR 06:02 (March/April 1980)
- BAR 06:03 (May/Jun 1980)
- BAR 06:04 (July/Aug 1980)
- BAR 06:05 (Sep/Oct 1980)
- BAR 06:06 (Nov/Dec 1980)
- BAR 07:01 (Jan/Feb 1981)
- BAR 07:02 (March/April 1981)
- BAR 07:03 (May/Jun 1981)
- BAR 07:04 (July/Aug 1981)
- BAR 07:05 (Sep/Oct 1981)
- BAR 07:06 (Nov/Dec 1981)
- BAR 08:01 (Jan/Feb 1982)
- BAR 08:02 (March/April 1982)
- BAR 08:03 (May/June 1982)
- BAR 08:04 (July/Aug 1982)
- BAR 08:05 (Set/Oct 1982)
- BAR 08:06 (Nov/Dec 1982)
- BAR 09:01 (Jan/Feb 1983)
- BAR 09:02 (March/Abril 1983)
- BAR 09:03 (May/Jun 1983)
- BAR 09:04 (July/Aug 1983)
- BAR 09:05 (Set/Oct 1983)
- BAR 09:06 (Nov/Dec 1983)
- BAR 10:01 (Jan/Feb 1984)
- BAR 10:02 (March/April 1984)
- BAR 10:03 (May/June 1984)
- BAR 10:04 (July/Aug 1984)
- BAR 10:05 (Set/Oct 1984)
- BAR 10:06 (Nov/Dec 1984)
- BAR 11:01 (Jan/Feb 1985)
- BAR 11:02 (March/April 1985)
- BAR 11:03 (May/June 1985)
- BAR 11:04 (July/Aug 1985)
- BAR 11:05 (Sep/Oct 1985)
- BAR 11:06 (Nov/Dec 1985)
- BAR 12:01 (Jan/Feb 1986)
- BAR 12:02 (March/April 1986)
- BAR 12:03 (May/June 1986)
- BAR 12:04 (July/Aug 1986)
- BAR 12:05 (Sep/Oct 1986)
- BAR 12:06 (Nov/Dec 1986)
- BAR 13:01 (Jan/Feb 1987)
- BAR 13:02 (March/April 1987)
- BAR 13:03 (May/June 1987)
- BAR 13:04 (Jul/Aug 1987)
- BAR 13:05 (Sep/Oct 1987)
- BAR 13:06 (Nov/Dec 1987)
- BAR 14:01 (Jan/Feb 1988)
- BAR 14:02 (March/April 1988)
- BAR 14:03 (May/June 1988)
- BAR 14:04 (July/Aug 1988)
- BAR 14:05 (Set/Oct 1988)
- BAR 14:06 (Nov/Dec 1988)
- BAR 15:01 (Jan/Feb 1989)
- BAR 15:02 (March/April 1989)
- BAR 15:03 (May/June 1989)
- BAR 15:04 (July/Aug 1989)
- BAR 15:05 (Set/Oct 1989)
- BAR 15:06 (Nov/Dec 1989)
- BAR 16:01 (Jan/Feb1990)
- BAR 16:02 (March/April 1990)
- BAR 16:03 (May/June 1990)
- BAR 16:04 (July/Aug 1990)
- BAR 16:05 (Set/Oct 1990)
- BAR 16:06 (Nov/Dec 1990)
- BAR 17:01 (Jan/Feb 1991)
- BAR 17:02 (March/April 1991)
- BAR 17:03 (May/June 1991)
- BAR 17:04 (July/Aug 1991)
- BAR 17:05 (Set/Oct 1991)
- BAR 17:06 (Nov/Dec 1991)
- BAR 18:01 (Jan/Feb 1992)
Bible Dictionaries and
- Archer, Gleason
Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand
Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1982. PDF
Excellent treatment of difficult
passages of the Bible from a conservative perspective.
- Negev, Avraham, ed. Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 3rd ed. New York, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996. * Not to be confused with this Encyclopedia which is not online. Stern, Ephraim, Ayelet Levinson-Gilboa, and Joseph Aviram, eds. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vols. New York, N.Y.: MacMillan, 1993.
- Berenbaum, Michael,
and Fred Skolnik, eds. Encyclopedia Judaica. 22 vols. 2nd ed. New
York, N.Y.: MacMillan, 2006. Available
online through Liberty
- Blaiklock, Edward M., R.K. Harrison, eds. The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1983. Available on Campus
- Butler, Trent C., ed. Holman Bible Dictionary. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman, 1991. Not to be confused with the Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), which is expanded and updated, but this original work is packed full (6,672 entries) of good material.
- Carson, Thomas, ed. The New Catholic Encyclopedia. 15 vols. 2nd ed. Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 2003. Written from a Roman Catholic perspective. Not to be confused with the older outdated online work: Pallen, Condé Bénoist, Charles George Herbermann, and Edward Aloysius Pace, eds. The Catholic Encyclopedia. 19 vols. New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1913. also at New Advent
- Collins, John J.,
and Daniel C. Harlow, eds. The
Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism. Grand
Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2010.
- Easton, Mathew George. Easton's Illustrated Bible Dictionary. 3rd ed. Nashville, Tenn.: Nelson, 1897. Older research available on many sites but good for an overview of previous views.
- Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical
Dictionary of Biblical Theology. 2nd ed.
Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker
Academic, 1996. Standard dictionary
on biblical theology from an evangelical perspective.
- Freedman, David Noel, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins, eds. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992. Often minimalist in its conclusions but good academic research and good bibliographies. Use their Search *
- Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000.
- Hastings, James, and John A. Selbie, eds. A Dictionary of the Bible. Single Volume. New York, N.Y.: Scribner’s Sons, 1909. LINK Not to be confused with the 5 volume edition which completely different articles. Hastings, James, and John A. Selbie, eds. A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature and Contents Including the Biblical Theology. 5 vols. New York, N.Y.: Scribner’s Sons, 1911.
- Myers, Allen C. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1996.
- Orr, James, and Melvin
Grove Kyle, eds. The
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.
5 vols. Howard-Severance Co., Chicago, 1915; Grand Rapids,
Mich..: Eerdmans, 1989. Also available at StudyLight
Hall Bible Search
- Pfeiffer, Charles F,
Howard Frederic Vos, and John Rea, eds. The
Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Chicago, Ill.:
Moody, 2005. Standard conservative
Encyclopedia of more than two hundred biblical scholars that
was begun in 1959.
- Singer, Isidore, Cyrus Adler, Gotthard Deutsch, Kaufmann Kohler, and Emil G. Hirsch, eds. The Jewish Encyclopedia. 12 vols. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls, 1906. Research from a Jewish perspective. Not to be confused with this less academic, single volume work. Bridger, David, and Samuel Wolk. The New Jewish Encyclopedia. Springfield, NJ: Behrman, 1962.
- Smith, William. Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London,
U.K.: Murray, 1875. Standard
reference work for many years, although outdated it is
still a valuable source if handled carefully and with
- Tenney, Merrill C., and Moisés Silva, eds. Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1-5. Revised, Full-Color ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009. *
Many older commentaries
such as John Gill, John Calvin, Matthew Henry, Scofield's Notes,
Adam Clarke, etc. and available online are
great for devotions and sermon preparation but not suitable for
academic research. Here are a few that are suitable and online.
NT Commentaries. 17 vols. New Daily
Study Bible. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 2004. Barclay (1907-1978) was a Scottish author,
radio and television presenter, Church of Scotland minister,
and Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the
University of Glasgow. Skeptical about the Trinity, believed
in universal salvation, and a pacifism but maintained great
insights into the text.
- Jamieson, Robert, Andrew Robert Faussett, and David Brown. A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments. Oak Harbor, Wash.: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997. Considered to be conservative and orthodox teachers of the Christian faith which was first published in 1871. Jamieson (1802-1880) and Brown (1803-1897). Dated but still considered helpful.
C. F., and Franz Delitzsch. Commentary on
the Old Testament. 10 vols. Peabody, Mass.:
Hendrickson, 2006. Conservative German
Lutheran Old Testament scholarship from the nineteenth
century which is still helpful.
Anchor Yale Bible Commentary 37
vols. 1st ed. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974–2009. Although most of their conclusions are
minimalist they still have reliable factual information that
makes them a valuable modern resource. You can buy them for
$2,000.00 or view them online.The
Apocryphal volumes are not included here.
of commentaries and authors to use for
- Genesis: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Exodus: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Leviticus: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Numbers: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Deuteronomy: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Joshua: A New Translation with Notes and Commentary
- Judges: Introduction, Translation and Commentary
- Ruth: A New Translation with Introduction, Notes and Commentary
- I Samuel: A New translation with introduction, notes and commentary
- II Samuel: A New Translation With Introduction, Notes and Commentary
- I kings: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- II kings: A new translation with introduction, notes and commentary
- I Chronicles: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- II Chronicles: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Ezra: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Nehemiah: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Esther: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Job: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Psalms: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Proverbs: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Ecclesiastes: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Song of songs: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Isaiah: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Jeremiah: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary
- Lamentations: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary
- Ezekiel: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary
- Hosea: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Joel: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary
- Amos: A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary
- Matthew: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Mark: Introduction, Translation, and Notes
- Luke: Introduction, Translation and Notes
- John: Introduction, Translation and Notes
- The Acts of the Apostles: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary
- I Corinthians: Introduction with a Study of the Life of Paul, Notes, and Commentary
- II Corinthians: Translated with Introduction, Notes and Commentary
- Revelation: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary
Testament Commentary by William Hendriksen
and Simon J. Kistemaker, (1953-2001). Grand Rapids: Baker Book
House. These are up to date commentaries from a Reformed
Evangelical perspective and will provide a wealth of
background information for you.
- Exposition of the Gospel According to Mark
- Exposition of the Gospel According to Luke
- Exposition of the Gospel According to John
- Exposition of the Acts of the Apostles
- Exegetical Commentary on New Testament: Romans
- Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians
- Exposition of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Galatians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Ephesians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Philippians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Colossians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of I Thessalonians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of II Thessalonians
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of I Timothy
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of II Timothy
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Titus
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Philemon
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of Hebrews
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of James
- New Testament Commentary The First Epistle of Peter
- New Testament Commentary The Second Epistle of Peter
- New Testament Commentary The First Epistle of John
- New Testament Commentary The Second Epistle of John
- New Testament Commentary The Third Epistle of John
- Exposition of the Epistle of Jude
- New Testament Commentary Exposition of the Book of Revelation
Maps and Charts
- The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Map Series which contains maps in the Ancient Near East.
- Interactive map of first century Israel by Bible History Online.
- Madaba Map
- Virtual Numeira is a great site to feel the area of Bab edh-Dhra.
- Interactive Dead Sea Level chart.
- Map of the northern Dead Sea sites including Tall el-Hammam.
of the northern and southern locations of the Cities of
- Okeanos list of archaeological excavations by region.
(also called Society for Biblical Literature - SBL) format, used
in biblical studies courses around the world, MUST be followed
for all footnotes (not
end-notes or APA) and bibliography used in ALL paper submitted in Liberty
Online courses I teach.
- Liberty Turabian Guide
- The Liberty Online Writing Center
- Libery InfoRM Learn how to use resources and write academic papers.
- Alexander, Patrick, John F. Kutsko, and Shirley Decker-Lucke. The SBL Handbook of Style: For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1999. There is a Society for Biblical Literature (SBL) Student Supplement for Turabian for biblical studies PDF that is helpful for students.
- ETURABIAN: This is a great tool to help put your footnotes in the proper format. The Service is free but you will need to set up a username and password.
- ZOTERO: A helpful footnote tool is the free Firefox plug-in called Zotero. It is used for automatically inserting footnotes into your papers and automatically creating your bibliography and keeping it up to date with any new footnotes you add. You can follow the instructional videos online to set it up. There are also YouTube videos that will help. There are also a necessary word processor plugins, available for Microsoft Word and LibreOffice, OpenOffice and NeoOffice. This will allow you to place footnotes into your papers automatically. Word processor plugins are available here. Gather bibliographic information off of sites like Amazon.com and insert the footnote into your paper with a few clicks of your mouse. If you use Zotero then select their Citation Style: "Chicago Manual of Style (full note)."
Modified April 7, 2014
2014 Dr. David E. Graves