Feb 8, 2016

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Online Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Several Dictionaries and Encyclopedias are available online however, be careful with older editons, as this reflects outdated research. It is NOT permissible to use Wikipedia as some of the information is unreliable and can be misleading. Here is a link to online resources that are recommended and made available through my BLOG.

Also, the Google Books and Amazon.coms Look Inside feature, can be a big help, if you watch carefully the quality of the books (from a publisher with University in the name i.e., Oxford University Press, Harvard, etc.). You may need to set up a Google account to view the pages, but this is free. While only 10% of the book may be viewed due to copyright laws if you manage your search carefully you can find what you need including the page numbers.
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Modified Jan 18, 2016 Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media

Smyrna

Arch in the Agora of Smyrna.
Image of Empress Faustina depicted on the Arch
Photo © David E. Graves

Smyrna (Mod. Izmir)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Smyrna (modern name is Izmir) is an interesting site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. You will want to mention the agora and relevance to the NT. Ramsay, Hemer and Graves have identified several local references in the text of Revelation which you should point out. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material. 

Online material: I highly recommend my books and articles. LINK 

  • Graves, David E. "Smyrna. " Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 238–41. Google Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 83–86. LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation. " In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. Smyrna is page 338–39. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 1. " Bible and Spade 23, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 46–56. Smyrna is pages 51–52. PDF
  • Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 1: Archaeological Background. " Bible and Spade 18, no. 4 (2005): 114–23. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 2: Historical Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 1 (2006): 23–31. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 3: Jewish Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 2 (2006): 41–47. PDF
  • Graves, David E. "Local References in the Letter to Smyrna (Rev 2: 8–11), Part 4: Religious Background. " Bible and Spade 19, no. 3 (2007): 88–96. PDF
  • Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
  • Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.

Available through Inter–Library Loan:

  • Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Blaiklock, E. M. "Smyrna" in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009
  • Potter, D. S. "Smyrna (Place)." In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992, 6:73–75.
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Modified Feb 8, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.  

Sardis

Sardis Gymnasium viewed from the Jewish Synagogue.
Photo © David E. Graves

Sardis (Mod. Sart)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

Sardis (Modern name is Sart) is an interesting and large site so you may need to narrow your survey a bit. I’ve spent several days there and still did not see everything. You will want to mention the synagogue and relevance to the NT. Ramsay, Hemer and Graves have identified several local references in the text of Revelation which you should point out. Remember to provide "the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study." Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material. 

Online material: I highly recommend my books and articles. LINK

  • Graves, David E. "Sardis. " Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 245–48. Google Look Inside
  • Graves, David E. Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes. Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2013. pages 89–92. LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Appendix B – The Graeco–Roman Literary Context For The Seven Messages Of Revelation." In Key Themes of the New Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes, 335–48. Moncton, N.B.: Graves, 2013. Sardis is page 345. PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. "Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 2." Bible and Spade 23, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 66–74. Sardis is pages 66–69.PDF or LINK
  • Graves, David E. The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function. Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies 41. Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias, 2009. Amazon Look Inside
  • Greenewalt Jr., Crawford H., Donald G. Sullivan, Christopher Ratté and Thomas N. Howe"The Sardis Campaigns of 1981 and 1982." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies. No. 23 (1985): 53–92. JSTOR
  • Greenewalt Jr., Crawford H., Marcus L. Rautman and Recep Meric. "The Sardis Campaign of 1983." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies. No. 24 (1986): 1–30. JSTOR
  • Mitten, David Gordon. "A New Look at Ancient Sardis." Biblical Archaeologist 29, no. 3 (1966): 38–68. JSTOR
  • Ramage, A., Craddock, P. (Eds.), Examination of the Sardis gold and the replication experiments, Monograph Volume 11, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, in association with the British Museum Press, Cambridge, 2000.
  • Ramsay, William M. St. Paul the Traveler and Roman Citizen. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel, 1896. LINK
  • Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904. LINK There is an newer edition with few differences but not online. Ramsay, William M. The Letters to Seven Churches: Updated Edition. Edited by Mark W. Wilson. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994.
  • Royalty, Robert M. "Etched or Sketched? Inscriptions and Erasures in the Messages to Sardis and Philadelphia (Rev. 3.1–13)." Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27, no. 4 (June 2005): 447–463. LINK

Available through Inter–Library Loan:

  • Bonz, Marianne Palmer. "The Jewish Community of Ancient Sardis: A Reassessment of Its Rise to Prominence." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 93 (1990): 343–59.
  • Graves, David E. "Sardis. " Biblical Archaeology Vol. 1: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible (Moncton, N.B.: Electronic Christian Media, 2014), 245–48. Google Look Inside
  • Hanfmann, George M. A. Letters from Sardis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., Nelson Glueck, and Jane C. Waldbaum. New Excavations at Sardis and Some Problems of Western Anatolian Archaeoogy. High Wycomb: University Microfilms, 1975.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., William E. Mierse, and Clive Foss, eds. Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 1958–1975. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Hanfmann, George M. A., and Jane C Waldbaum. A Survey of Sardis and the Major Monuments Outside the City Walls. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,, 1975.
  • Hemer, Colin J. "The Sardis Letter and the Croesus Tradition. " New Testament Studies 19 (1972): 94–97.
  • Hemer, Colin J. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001.
  • Kraabel, A. T. "Impact of the Discovery of the Sardis Synagogue. " In Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times: Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 1958–1975, edited by George Maxim Anossov Hanfmann, William E. Mierse, and Clive Foss, 178–90. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  • Ramsay, William M. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1895.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Bonz, Marianne Palmer. “Sardis.” In The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism, edited by John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow, 1194–96. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2010.
  • Blaiklock, E. M. “Sardis.” in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2009
  • Myers, Allen C. ed. “Sardis.” in The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1996. 
  • Burge, Gary M. “Sardis.” Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000. 
  • Pedley, John Griffiths. “Sardis (Place).” Edited by David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins. The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992, 5:982-84 .
  • Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. "Sardis"  Pages 497–99 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
  • Vailhé, S. “Sardis.” in The Catholic Encyclopedia. 16 vols. Edited by  Condé Bénoist Pallen, Charles George Herbermann, and Edward Aloysius Pace. New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1913. LINK
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Modified Feb 8, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.