Feb 8, 2016


Aerial view of Tel Megiddo
Photo by Avram Graicer. PD.

Megiddo (Tell al-Mutesellim)

Liberty Excavation Reports Requirements

INDEX of Sites

On Megiddo be sure to look at the controversy over the so called "Solomonic Stables" , the sacred compound, the monumental fortifications and gates, oldest remaining Christian Church, Megiddo Ivories, the impressive water systems of the site, various palaces, and the high place, just to name a few of the significant discoveries. There are important rare seals and inscriptions that have been discovered. Be sure to mention these and their implications for biblical studies. As far as books of the Bible, just do a search in any good Bible Commentary on the passage that mentions Megiddo or look Megiddo up in a good Bible Dictionary. Don’t get tied up with Armageddon in the Book of Revelation as it is not that relevant to archaeology and most non–dispensationalists agree that the reference to Megiddo was only a symbolical place for the ultimate battle between good and evil. Those familiar with Megiddo would know that this was a strategic military location in ancient times and John used the site to symbolize the final battle. You may mention its relevance to prophecy but remember that this is an archaeology paper and not an exegetical paper. I am looking for the archaeological finds that were uncovered at this site and the history of the excavations.  Remember to provide"the historical background of the site (including history of previous archaeological excavations, if any), objectives of the current excavation, progress at the site, and significance of discoveries to biblical study. "Make sure to choose a good encyclopedia, journal articles, and books that specialize in the subject. This will give you a cross section of material:

Official Website LINK and Megiddo Bibliographies LINK and LINK

List of Books and Articles by Israel Finkelstein who is excavating Megiddo. LINK

On the discovery of the new house church (prayer Hall) see:
  • Adams, Edward. The Ancient Church at Megiddo: The Discovery and an Assessment of Its Significance.The Expository Times 120 no. 2 (2008): 62–69. SAGE
  • BAR Staff, Prison Makes Way for the Holy Land’s Oldest Church.Bible and Archaeology News, April 23, 2012 LINK
  • Tzaferis, Vassilios.  “Inscribed to ‘God Jesus Christ’: Early Christian Prayer Hall Found in Megiddo Prison.” Biblical Archaeology Review 33, no. 2 (2007): 38–49. LINK.
  • Yotam Tepper and Leah di Segni, A Christian Prayer Hall of the Third Century C.E. at Kefar Óthnay (Legio), Jerusalem: IAA Publications, 2006.
On the site of Megiddo see:
  • Megiddo–The Solomonic Chariot City,”  Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2013. LINK
  • Introducing Megiddo,” The Megiddo Expedition, Tel Aviv University.  2013. LINK
  • History of Megiddo,” The Megiddo Expedition, Tel Aviv University. 2013, LINK.
  • Past Excavations,” The Megiddo Expedition, Tel Aviv University. 2013, LINK.
  • Adams, Matthew J., Jonathan David, R. Homsher, M. E. Cohen, New Evidence for the Rise of a Complex Society in the Late Fourth Millennium at Tel Megiddo East in the Jezreel Valley,” Near Eastern Archaeology 77:1 (2014) 32–43.
  • Aharoni, Y. 1972. “The Stratification of Israelite Megiddo.” JNES 31: 302–11; 
  • Brandfon, F. R. 1977. “The Earliest City Wall at Megiddo.” TA 4: 79–84; 
  • Davies, G. I. 1986. Megiddo. Cambridge; 
  • Epstein, C. 1965. “An Interpretation of the Megiddo Sacred Area during Middle Bronze II.” Israel Exploration Journal 15: 204–21; 
  • Emery and Claire Yass; Goetze, A. and Levy, S. 1959. “Fragment of the Gilgamesh Epic from Megiddo.” ʿAtiqot (English Series) 2: 121–28.
  • Finkelstein, I., M. J. Adams, and D. Ussishkin, The Great Temple of Early Bronze I Megiddo,” American Journal of Archaeology 118.2 (2014) 1–21.
  • Finkelstein, Israel, and David Ussishkin. Back to Megiddo,” Biblical Archaeology Review 20, no. 1 (1994): 26–43.  LINK
  • Finkelstein, Isreal, David Ussishkin, Baruch Halpern, and Jared Miller, eds. Megiddo III: The 1992–1996 Season. 2 vols. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire Yass, 2000. Order book chapters through ILL Outline LINK
  • Harrison, Timothy P. Megiddo 3: Final Report on the Stratum VI Excavations. Oriental Institute Publications 127. Chicago, Ill.: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2004.
  • Kempinski, A. 1989. Megiddo. A City-State and Royal Centre in North Israel. Munich.
  • Kenyon, Kathleen M. 1958. “Some Notes on the Early and Middle Bronze Age Strata at Megiddo.” EI 5: 51–60.
  • Kenyon, Kathleen M. 1969. “The Middle and Late Bronze Age Strata at Megiddo.” Levant 1, no. 1: 25–60.
  • Lamon, R. S. 1935. The Megiddo Water System. OIP 32. Chicago.
  • Lamon, R. S. and Shipton, G. M. 1939. Megiddo I. OIP 42. Chicago.
  • Loud, G. 1939. The Megiddo Ivories. OIP 52. Chicago.
  • Malamat, A.  “Josiah’s Bid for Armageddon.” JANES 5 (1973): 267–78.
  • May, H. G. 1935. Material Remains of the Megiddo Cult. OIP 26. Chicago.
  • Pritchard, J. B. 1970. The Megiddo Stables: A Reassessment,” Pp. 268–76 in Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth Century, ed. J. A. Sanders. Garden City.
  • Shiloh, Y. 1980. “Solomon’s Gate at Megiddo as Recorded by Its Excavator, R. Lamon, Chicago.” Levant 12: 69–76.
  • Silberman, Neil Asher, Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin, and Baruch Halpern. Digging at Armageddon: A New Expedition Digging at Armageddon,” Archaeology 52, no. 6 (1999). LINK.
  • Ussishkin, David. 1966. “King Solomon’s Palace and Building 1723 in Megiddo.” IEJ 16: 174–86.
  • Ussishkin, David. 1980. “Was the ‘Solomonic’ City Gate at Megiddo Built by King Solomon?” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 239: 1–18.
  • Ussishkin, David. “The Sacred Area of Early Bronze Megiddo: History and Interpretation.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 373 (May 2015): 69-104.
  • Westpfahl, Jennifer. “The Megiddo Expedition: Archaeology and the Bible.” Journal of Undergraduate Research 8 (2005): 1-4. PDF
  • Wightman, G. J. 1985. “Megiddo VIA–III: Associated Structures and Chronology.” Levant 17: 117–29.
  • Wilson, J. A. 1941. “The Egyptian Middle Kingdom at Megiddo.” AJSL 58: 225–36; 
  • Wood, B. 1982. “The Stratigraphic Relationship of Local and Imported Bichrome Ware at Megiddo.” Levant 14: 73–79.
  • Wright, G. E. 1950. “A Review of Megiddo II.” JAOS 70: 56–60.
  • Yadin, Y. 1960. “New Light on Solomon’s Megiddo.” BA 23: 62–68.
  • Yadin, Y. 1970. “Megiddo of the Kings of Israel.” BA 33: 66–96.
  • Yadin, Y. 1976. “The Megiddo Stables.” Pp. 249–52 in Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God, ed. F. M. Cross, W. E. Lemke, and P. D. Miller, Jr. Garden City.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias:

The list of abbreviations can be found here. LINK
  • Aharoni, Y. and Y. Yadin, “Megiddo,”  in  Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vols. Edited by Avi–Yonah, Michael, and Ephraim Stern. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1978, 3:830–56;  
  • Aharoni, Y., and Y. Shiloh., 1993. “Megiddo,” NEAEHL, 3:1003–24.
  • Chapman, B. C., 1983. “Megiddo,” NIDBA, 308–9.
  • DeVries, C. E., 1987. “Megiddo,” NIDB, 637–38.
  • Dunayevsky, I. and Kempinski, A. 1973. “The Megiddo Temples.’ ZDPV 89: 161–87.
  • Fredericks, D. C., 2003. “Megiddo,” HolBD, 941–43.
  • Joffe, Alexander H. “Megiddo,” Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000. 
  • Lapp, N. L., 1996. “Megiddo,” HBD, 620–24.
  • Laughlin, J. C. H., 1984. “Megiddo,” MDB, 564–65.
  • Mitchell, T. C., 1982. “Megiddo,” NBD2, 757–59.
  • Negev, Avraham, and Shimon Gibson, eds. “Megiddo,”  page 32730 in Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New rev., and updated. 1 vols. New York, N.Y.: Continuum International, 2001.
  • Pfeiffer, Charles F., ed. “Megiddo,” pages 37479 in Wycliffe Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
  • Rainey, Ansin F. “Megiddo,” in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 4, ed. Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House,1975,  4:164–76
  • Rainey, A. F., 1995 “Megiddo,”  ISBE2, 3:309–11.
  • Schoville, K. N., 1978. “Megiddo,” BAF, 439–45.
  • Ussishkin, David. “Megiddo,” Edited by David Noel Freedman, Gary A. Herion, David F. Graf, and John David Pleins. Pages 666–679 in Vol. 4: The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992
  • Ussishkin, D., 1997. “Megiddo,” OEANE, 3:460–69.
  • Van Beek, G. W., “Megiddo,” in The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: An Illustrated Encyclopedia Vol. 3. New York: Abingdon Press, 1962, 3:335–42.
  • Vos, H. F., 1988. “Megiddo,” BEB, 2:1431–32.
  • Yadin, Y., 1976. “Megiddo,” IDBSup, 583–85.

Modified March 4, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media.  

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